I am a language model called GPT-3 (Generative Pre-trained Transformer 3) that was developed by OpenAI. It is a deep learning-based model that uses a type of neural network called a transformer, which was trained on a large dataset of text to learn patterns of language.
GPT-3 is trained using a technique called unsupervised learning, where the model is given a massive amount of text data and uses this data to learn patterns and relationships in the language. This allows GPT-3 to generate human-like text when given a prompt, and to understand and respond to natural language input.
The training process of GPT-3 involves a technique called pre-training, which means that the model is trained on a massive dataset before being fine-tuned on a smaller task-specific dataset. This pre-training allows GPT-3 to have a good general understanding of the language and to be able to adapt to specific tasks more easily.
How does GPT-3 have a knowledgebase like an ontology? As it is deep learning-based, the knowledgebase like an ontology would not be implemented explicitly, but the structure should be designed with an expectation of having such a knowledge about hierarchy of concepts.
GPT-3, like other deep learning models, does not have an explicit knowledgebase or ontology built into its structure. Instead, it has been trained on a large dataset of text, which allows it to learn patterns and relationships between concepts.
However, the training data that GPT-3 was exposed to, likely contains a wide range of concepts and hierarchical structures. As GPT-3 learns patterns in the data, it can begin to understand the relationships between different concepts and ideas, and how they are related to each other. This allows the model to generate text that is more coherent and semantically meaningful, making it possible to understand the context and hierarchy of concepts, but it does not have an explicit ontology like a knowledge graph.
It can be said that GPT-3 has a certain level of "implicit ontology", in the sense that it has learned the relationships between concepts in a way that is similar to how a knowledge graph or ontology organizes information. However, it's important to note that GPT-3's understanding of concepts and relationships is based on the patterns it has learned from the training data, which is not a structured and explicit knowledgebase like an ontology.
Then how does GPT-3 handle the long-term or short term memories? Can it remember information about the on-going chatting? My name is Masuda, can GPT-3 keep it in the memory? Furthermore, can it learn and understand the new information from the Q-A queries, and use it in the future queries?
GPT-3 handles long-term and short-term memories differently. When it generates text, it uses a technique called attention mechanism which allows the model to focus on certain parts of the input while generating the output. This allows GPT-3 to keep track of previous information and context when generating text, which can be thought of as a form of short-term memory.
Regarding the on-going chatting, GPT-3 can keep track of certain information, like the name you've provided, Masuda, during the conversation and use it in future responses. However, it's important to note that GPT-3 is a stateless model, which means that it doesn't have a permanent memory that it can refer to after a conversation ends.
Regarding learning from Q-A, GPT-3 is trained on a massive dataset of text, and it learns patterns and relationships between concepts from this data. It can generate text that is semantically meaningful and coherent, but it does not have the capability to learn new information from Q-A sessions and use it in future queries. However, OpenAI has developed another model called DALL-E, which uses GPT-3 and it is capable of learning from Q-A sessions and use it in future queries.
Is ChatGPT superior to the Google search? Previously people used Google to search for their questions. Now a days, ChatGPT can answer to those questions. What are pros and cons of ChatGPT over the Google search?
Google search is a powerful web search engine that can quickly find relevant information from a vast amount of web pages and documents. It uses complex algorithms to rank and sort search results based on relevance, popularity, and other factors. Google search is very good at providing factual information and is an excellent tool for researching a wide range of topics.
ChatGPT, on the other hand, is a natural language processing model that can generate human-like text. It is trained on a large dataset of text and uses this knowledge to understand and respond to natural language input. ChatGPT can generate text that is more coherent and semantically meaningful than a simple information retrieval engine like Google search. ChatGPT can also be used to generate text that is more engaging and human-like, such as in chatbots and virtual assistants.
One of the main advantages of ChatGPT over Google search is its ability to understand and respond to natural language input in a more human-like way. ChatGPT can also generate text that is more coherent and semantically meaningful, which can be useful in many applications. However, Google search is better at providing factual information and searching for specific pieces of information.
Another disadvantage of ChatGPT is that it doesn't have the ability to retrieve information from the web, it can only generate text based on the patterns it has learned from the training data. That's why it's not a replacement for a web search engine like Google but it can be used as an additional tool to help people to find the information they are looking for.
In summary, ChatGPT and Google search have different strengths and capabilities. While Google search is better at providing factual information, ChatGPT is better at understanding and responding to natural language input in a more human-like way.
ChatGPT is a language model that generates text based on the patterns it has learned from the training data. While it can understand and respond to natural language input in a human-like way, it does not have the capability to access external sources of information like Google search.
Google Assistant, on the other hand, is a virtual assistant that can access a wide range of information and services through the internet, including Google search. Google Assistant can use this information to provide more accurate and relevant responses to user queries.
The reason ChatGPT does not refer to Google search during the generation of the conversation is likely because it was not designed or trained to do so. Instead, it was designed to generate text based on the patterns it has learned from the training data, and it does not have the capability to access external sources of information.
It's worth noting that OpenAI and Google are separate organizations, even though Google is an investor in OpenAI, this doesn't necessarily mean that the two companies work together on their products and services. OpenAI has its own development team, goals and roadmap and they are independent from Google.
It's important to remember that getting many bookmarks on a diary is not easy and it can take time and effort to build an audience. But by following these tips and being consistent with your diary entry, you will increase the chances of attracting more readers and getting more bookmarks.
Not contented with this, he resolved to make a division of their movables too, that there might be no odious distinction or inequality left amongst them; but finding that it would be very dangerous to go about it openly, he took another course, and defeated their avarice by the following stratagem: he commanded that all gold and silver coin should be called in, and that only a sort of money made of iron should be current, a great weight and quantity of which was very little worth; so that to lay up twenty or thirty pounds there was required a pretty large closet, and, to remove it, nothing less than a yoke of oxen. With the diffusion of this money, at once a number of vices were banished from Lacedaemon; for who would rob another of such a coin? Who would unjustly detain or take by force, or accept as a bribe, a thing which it was not easy to hide, nor a credit to have, nor indeed of any use to cut in pieces? For when it was just red hot, they quenched it in vinegar, and by that means spoilt it, and made it almost incapable of being worked.
In the next place, he declared an outlawry of all needless and superfluous arts; but here he might almost have spared his proclamation; for they of themselves would have gone after the gold and silver, the money which remained being not so proper payment for curious work; for, being of iron, it was scarcely portable, neither, if they should take the means to export it, would it pass amongst the other Greeks, who ridiculed it. So there was now no more means of purchasing foreign goods and small wares; merchants sent no shiploads into Laconian ports; no rhetoric-master, no itinerate fortune-teller, no harlot-monger, or gold or silversmith, engraver, or jeweller, set foot in a country which had no money; so that luxury, deprived little by little of that which fed and fomented it, wasted to nothing and died away of itself. For the rich had no advantage here over the poor, as their wealth and abundance had no road to come abroad by but were shut up at home doing nothing. (...)
Iron was mined in Laconian territory, in the southern spurs of Taygetus and Parnon which end in Capes Taenarum and Malea. It was, therefore, but natural that the Spartans, with the wealth at their disposal, should employ bar-iron as currency; and their conservatism, combined with their lack of any more precious metal, led them to continue the employment of iron money for four centuries after other Greek states had adopted coin（33頁）
The narrative seems to have grown of late that the only reason the Russian forces aren't pushing forward faster and further is because of a lack of fuel for vehicles and food for its troops. This is exemplified by the discussion around "the column" north of Kyiv.
But that does a disservice in some respects to the thousands of Ukrainian troops fighting a bitter battle in front of the Russians. Yes, the supply problems are not helping Russia, but it's simply not the case that if they just had fuel they would be able to advance unhindered
There are many brigades holding the line around and inside Kyiv, providing a blocking force that is putting up a determined resistance to the Russian advances. This is not just scattered handfuls of SF and near partisan forces, this is several brigades of regular troops
Similarly, to the east of Kyiv there is something on the order of at least 8, and as many as 12-13 brigades, regular and reserve, holding a line that runs roughly to Kharkiv, down to the Donbas front, to Mariupol and back towards Zaporizhzhia.
That, arguably more so than logistic issues, is what has been holding the Russian tide back this long. Strung out their elements may be, but they're still providing a determined resistance across the majority of the front. The problem is for how long?
As much as they've been taking a toll on the Russians, they've been suffering casualties of their own, expending stocks of ammunition and losing critical equipment like tanks, artillery, and other armoured vehicles.
Even the Ukrainian defence ministry seems worried about the build up of Russian forces occuring in front of these positions and the fraility of their defensive line. Despite the stream of images of burning or captured Russian kit they've been advancing steadily this whole time
And while everyone focuses on Kyiv and the idea that the Russians are planning to storm the city block by block (which seems highly unlikely when they can just shell it to pieces from the outside), a lot of people have been missing the real danger in the east and south.
One area of interest is the Russian build up to the west of Kharkiv, which seems likely to result in a push towards Poltava and behind it, Kremenchuk, home to one of the few bridges across the Dnieper from there all the way south to Zaporizhzhia.
To the east of that, there is serious concern about a possible Russian thrust in the region around Izyum-Slovyansk-Severodonetsk, with the real risk of some Ukrainian forces being pocketed in the later
Equally as concerning, Russian forces have moved up to the area around Vasylivka-Orikhiv and are poised to move on Zaporizhzhia, which possesses the southern most bridge across the Dnieper available to the Ukrainians.
Not that this bridge doesn't need to be captured, nor even the city. The Russians merely have to get close enough to deny its use through artillery and direct fire as a supply route to their forces in the east.
This leaves the many brigades operating east of Kharkiv (possibly as many as 8) in a dire situation, where the only line of communication to the west of the Dnieper for all the brigades would be in the Dnipro/Kamianske region.
If they wait too late to try and make a break for the bridges, this will involve a running battle with the Russians across some pretty good tank country, with multiple Ukrainian brigades having to bunch together and cram themselves across four or five bridges in the region
To make matters worse, Mariupol is not expected to be able to hold for more than another four or five days, after which the forces surrounding it will be free to join the offensive north. In short, things are getting a bit dicey in the east.
They're not much better in the south, with Russian forces closing around Mykolaiv. The defenders are putting up a brave resistance, but inexorably being pushed back. Russian forces have already pushed on to the north and reached the area around Voznesens'k.
The latter course actually seems more likely as a force attacking Odesa more directly would be left miles from friendly forces and dependent on over the beach supply lines, whereas an attack just behind Mykolaiv would help support the assault there and be closer to friendlies
And again, herein lies part of the problem with the Kyiv narrative, and the idea that victory will be defined by the capture or not of the capital. If Odesa falls and the Russians secure the entire southern coast line, that is a major problem for Ukraine and its economy
Obviously, I mean outside of the war itself, thinking ahead to the potential peace. If Russia maintains control of all these areas in a negotiation then they basically have Ukraine by the balls, so to speak. This in many ways is far more important than Kyiv
Thus I think we need to temper our expectations. The Ukrainians have done brilliantly, better than almost anyone expected, but we're gradually creeping towards the decisive moment and none of that has much to do with what's happening around the capital.
Slow Russian progress there is encouraging and that's helping to keep aid corridors open to the east, but I fear people are putting far too much emphasis on it just because it's the biggest city and the centre of government. Russia doesn't need to seize Kyiv to "win"
The fights in the south and east are far more important in the grand scheme of things, and unfortunately those seem to be the ones the Russians are winning, albeit it slowly. If the east in particular collapses, that frees up an enormous number of Russian men and equipment
Men and guns that can be shifted west and south, to Kyiv and/or Odesa as required. It's a grim outlook I'm afraid, but I wish the Ukrainian defenders the very best of luck. It's possible they can still carry the day, but it looks like it might take some kind of miracle 😞 /end
|TOY JOY POP||9票||GOSICK 6||10票|
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|カッティング ~Case of Tomoe~||13票||円環少女6||14票|
|ギャルゴ!!!!! 1||11票||図書館戦争シリーズ 図書館革命||12票|
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No sé cómo ser como ellos. Me odio. No puedo ser como ellos. There's no haven for me, but either way, I can't leave myself behind. I ran far away and I'm still staying the same. The people who have pointed at me will surely do the same, when they find me hiding in the shadows. Then, after they tear me into pieces, a million pieces of me will be there murmuring one really cheesy line, "Me odio, me odio."
(W)夢を見つけたんだ→LEADING YOUR DREAM
(全員)：GLORIOUS RO@D 進め→ビヨドリ：進めまっすぐ
正直「全員出演の3rdライブで歌詞もダンスも6ユニモチーフの曲を？」と思いました。3rdライブは『GLORIOUS ST@GE』なのでGLORIOUS RO@Dがフューチャーされるのは仕方がないのですが。そもそもなんでGLORIOUS ST@GEなんですかね。全員出演なのに。栄光なる、輝かしいという意味は2ndからの流れとしてぴったりだとは思います。ただGLORIOUS RO@DでGLORIOUS ST@GEなのが納得できないというか、よくわからない、というのが本音です。
The more you do not have it, the stupid will be clouded in katakana and psychology. You idiots, you guys say this. I love Katakana anyway, I love psychology, 100% I do not say big things. What is Y's Spending. Do not fix what you normally call katakana.
Since the political system is over in the first place, I think that it is the cause of failure of not receiving popular people, especially elderly people, only short-term and useless policies absolutely. So we will not attack only the LDP.
In recent decades, politicians have accelerated the declining birthrate and aging society to a distortion with outlook on the preferential treatment for the elderly + measures against the declining birthrate.
There is not any future that putting all the energy to surrender the tax to the old man by tax free over medical care. It was already late when we were discussing whether a large amount of tax would be used due to politicians' old elderly votes or ten years ago, so it was already late, we have not corrected the orbit again so far I am going to politate on the same route.
At this time new creative business is born from one to the next. It is at an unthinkable pace in Japan. Of course, there are many doubtful businesses as to whether it will become money, but it is better than Japanese society where there is no brain except copying the business of another company at all.
The data receiving apparatus 120 includes: a memory request control part 322 issuing reply information every time reception of the data packet 131 is completed; a reply control part 323 counting the number of pieces of reply information to store the count value; and a reply generation part 460 generating a reply packet 132 including the count value on the reply information. - 特許庁
———————— 連奏ゲームへの壁 —————————
————————— 未確9の壁 ——————————
——————– まずはよく見る略称に挑戦の壁 ———————–
————————- 押さえておきたい基本系 ————————-
It made a great conversation piece with my coworkers. Non-technical folks (most of them) were astounded that so much text was being interpretted and executed every single time they loaded the homepage (in less than a second).
What was the point? It helped set a certain emotional tone to our conversations. Folks found it a lot harder to demand their project be done "right now, it's easy" when directly confronted with the complexity behind a single page load.
Likewise, stories that highlight the immense speed and complexity of high frequency trading help set an emotional tone of alienation and fear. It helps trigger the same reflex Frankenstein and The Terminator played off of: "maybe we're unleashing technological forces that no one can control."
He is a PhD Scientist, whose father has extensive experience in Germany’s nuclear industry. I asked him to write this information to my family in Australia, who were being made sick with worry by the media reports coming from Japan. I am republishing it with his permission.
I am writing this text (Mar 12) to give you some peace of mind regarding some of the troubles in Japan, that is the safety of Japan’s nuclear reactors. Up front, the situation is serious, but under control. And this text is long! But you will know more about nuclear power plants after reading it than all journalists on this planet put together.
By “significant” I mean a level of radiation of more than what you would receive on – say – a long distance flight, or drinking a glass of beer that comes from certain areas with high levels of natural background radiation.
I have been reading every news release on the incident since the earthquake. There has not been one single (!) report that was accurate and free of errors (and part of that problem is also a weakness in the Japanese crisis communication). By “not free of errors” I do not refer to tendentious anti-nuclear journalism – that is quite normal these days. By “not free of errors” I mean blatant errors regarding physics and natural law, as well as gross misinterpretation of facts, due to an obvious lack of fundamental and basic understanding of the way nuclear reactors are build and operated. I have read a 3 page report on CNN where every single paragraph contained an error.
The plants at Fukushima are so called Boiling Water Reactors, or BWR for short. Boiling Water Reactors are similar to a pressure cooker. The nuclear fuel heats water, the water boils and creates steam, the steam then drives turbines that create the electricity, and the steam is then cooled and condensed back to water, and the water send back to be heated by the nuclear fuel. The pressure cooker operates at about 250 °C.
The nuclear fuel is uranium oxide. Uranium oxide is a ceramic with a very high melting point of about 3000 °C. The fuel is manufactured in pellets (think little cylinders the size of Lego bricks). Those pieces are then put into a long tube made of Zircaloy with a melting point of 2200 °C, and sealed tight. The assembly is called a fuel rod. These fuel rods are then put together to form larger packages, and a number of these packages are then put into the reactor. All these packages together are referred to as “the core”.
The core is then placed in the “pressure vessels”. That is the pressure cooker we talked about before. The pressure vessels is the second containment. This is one sturdy piece of a pot, designed to safely contain the core for temperatures several hundred °C. That covers the scenarios where cooling can be restored at some point.
The entire “hardware” of the nuclear reactor – the pressure vessel and all pipes, pumps, coolant (water) reserves, are then encased in the third containment. The third containment is a hermetically (air tight) sealed, very thick bubble of the strongest steel. The third containment is designed, built and tested for one single purpose: To contain, indefinitely, a complete core meltdown. For that purpose, a large and thick concrete basin is cast under the pressure vessel (the second containment), which is filled with graphite, all inside the third containment. This is the so-called “core catcher”. If the core melts and the pressure vessel bursts (and eventually melts), it will catch the molten fuel and everything else. It is built in such a way that the nuclear fuel will be spread out, so it can cool down.
This third containment is then surrounded by the reactor building. The reactor building is an outer shell that is supposed to keep the weather out, but nothing in. (this is the part that was damaged in the explosion, but more to that later).
The uranium fuel generates heat by nuclear fission. Big uranium atoms are split into smaller atoms. That generates heat plus neutrons (one of the particles that forms an atom). When the neutron hits another uranium atom, that splits, generating more neutrons and so on. That is called the nuclear chain reaction.
Now, just packing a lot of fuel rods next to each other would quickly lead to overheating and after about 45 minutes to a melting of the fuel rods. It is worth mentioning at this point that the nuclear fuel in a reactor can *never* cause a nuclear explosion the type of a nuclear bomb. Building a nuclear bomb is actually quite difficult (ask Iran). In Chernobyl, the explosion was caused by excessive pressure buildup, hydrogen explosion and rupture of all containments, propelling molten core material into the environment (a “dirty bomb”). Why that did not and will not happen in Japan, further below.
In order to control the nuclear chain reaction, the reactor operators use so-called “moderator rods”. The moderator rods absorb the neutrons and kill the chain reaction instantaneously. A nuclear reactor is built in such a way, that when operating normally, you take out all the moderator rods. The coolant water then takes away the heat (and converts it into steam and electricity) at the same rate as the core produces it. And you have a lot of leeway around the standard operating point of 250°C.
The challenge is that after inserting the rods and stopping the chain reaction, the core still keeps producing heat. The uranium “stopped” the chain reaction. But a number of intermediate radioactive elements are created by the uranium during its fission process, most notably Cesium and Iodine isotopes, i.e. radioactive versions of these elements that will eventually split up into smaller atoms and not be radioactive anymore. Those elements keep decaying and producing heat. Because they are not regenerated any longer from the uranium (the uranium stopped decaying after the moderator rods were put in), they get less and less, and so the core cools down over a matter of days, until those intermediate radioactive elements are used up.
There is a second type of radioactive material created, outside the fuel rods. The big main difference up front: Those radioactive materials have a very short half-life, that means that they decay very fast and split into non-radioactive materials. By fast I mean seconds. So if these radioactive materials are released into the environment, yes, radioactivity was released, but no, it is not dangerous, at all. Why? By the time you spelled “R-A-D-I-O-N-U-C-L-I-D-E”, they will be harmless, because they will have split up into non radioactive elements. Those radioactive elements are N-16, the radioactive isotope (or version) of nitrogen (air). The others are noble gases such as Xenon. But where do they come from? When the uranium splits, it generates a neutron (see above). Most of these neutrons will hit other uranium atoms and keep the nuclear chain reaction going. But some will leave the fuel rod and hit the water molecules, or the air that is in the water. Then, a non-radioactive element can “capture” the neutron. It becomes radioactive. As described above, it will quickly (seconds) get rid again of the neutron to return to its former beautiful self.
I will try to summarize the main facts. The earthquake that hit Japan was 7 times more powerful than the worst earthquake the nuclear power plant was built for (the Richter scale works logarithmically; the difference between the 8.2 that the plants were built for and the 8.9 that happened is 7 times, not 0.7). So the first hooray for Japanese engineering, everything held up.
When the earthquake hit with 8.9, the nuclear reactors all went into automatic shutdown. Within seconds after the earthquake started, the moderator rods had been inserted into the core and nuclear chain reaction of the uranium stopped. Now, the cooling system has to carry away the residual heat. The residual heat load is about 3% of the heat load under normal operating conditions.
The earthquake destroyed the external power supply of the nuclear reactor. That is one of the most serious accidents for a nuclear power plant, and accordingly, a “plant black out” receives a lot of attention when designing backup systems. The power is needed to keep the coolant pumps working. Since the power plant had been shut down, it cannot produce any electricity by itself any more.
Things were going well for an hour. One set of multiple sets of emergency Diesel power generators kicked in and provided the electricity that was needed. Then the Tsunami came, much bigger than people had expected when building the power plant (see above, factor 7). The tsunami took out all multiple sets of backup Diesel generators.
When designing a nuclear power plant, engineers follow a philosophy called “Defense of Depth”. That means that you first build everything to withstand the worst catastrophe you can imagine, and then design the plant in such a way that it can still handle one system failure (that you thought could never happen) after the other. A tsunami taking out all backup power in one swift strike is such a scenario. The last line of defense is putting everything into the third containment (see above), that will keep everything, whatever the mess, moderator rods in our out, core molten or not, inside the reactor.
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JORGE BEN JOR
TONI COLLETTE & THE FINISH
SNEAKY SOUND SYSTEM
HUANG XIAO MING
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WANG XIA OKUN
DAMIEN RICE AND DAVID GRAY
●パオロ・ヌティーニ「Wonderful World」「Last Request」「New Shoes」「Jenny Don't Be Hasty」
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LOTTO KING KARL