「heat」を含む日記 RSS

はてなキーワード: heatとは

2019-09-13

anond:20190912083115

はてブみていて心配になったので脇から記事に補足。まず用語として「伝達」はconvectionの直訳だろう。本来はelectrnic conductivityがただのconductivityになったようにheat convectionがただのconvectionになってしまって向こうの人の語感じゃ「伝達=対流」になってるみたい。(そっち方面専門の知人の話による)少なくともbelt conveyor本来意味を保って使われてるね。

やべえ、と思ったのは輻射(放射でもどっちでもいいやん)の説明太陽エネルギーマジョリティ可視光領域にある。しか空気は透明なので太陽光では温まらない。地面が太陽の輻射を吸収して、ようやく熱になる。元記事にある通りどんな物質もその物質性質温度で決まる熱輻射を出していて、常温近辺では輻射能力最強物質(これは電磁波吸収能力最強でもあるといういのがキルヒホッフの法則)は遠赤外線近辺の輻射をたくさん出している。と、いうわけで、太陽光は可視光が輻射の大半、地面の出す輻射が遠赤外あたり(赤外領域まで「黒い」土を想定)、赤くなった900℃くらいの炭なら地面の1/3くらいの波長の遠赤外線が主。

空気に含まれる水蒸気や炭酸ガス可視光に関しては透明だが赤外線領域の一部に関してはそうでない(不透明=吸収能力あり)なので地面から出てきた赤外線はすぐに宇宙には届かず、一部はこれらのガスを暖める。そしてこれらのガスが得たエネルギーが元記事のぷるんぷるん(熱伝導とは違って分子同士の直接の衝突だけど)によって他の大気分子に伝わり滞留する。これが温室効果の基礎。

もちろん現実大気は地面が太陽輻射で熱せられた後、熱伝導で直上の大気を熱し、その大気が対流で上に上がることによっても暖められる。そして最終的には全て赤外放射(輻射でもいいがな)として宇宙に全部出て行ってエネルギー収支が合う。

ところが炭酸ガスが増えると、前述の、地面からの赤外放射が炭酸ガスを暖める効果が多くなり、その分エネルギーが外に出て行くペースが落ち、大気の平均気温が前より高くなったとことで収支が合う。これが温室効果貿易してる中、盛んな内需のため国富が増えるみたいなものですね)

2019-08-21

anond:20190820170543

暑熱馴化(しょねつじゅんか、英: heat adaptability)とは、徐々に体を暑さに順応させることである

だいたい、暑熱馴化には1週間から10日掛かると言われているので、

東京10日ほど滞在すれば、その暑さにも慣れてきますよ。

OCオリンピック前は早めに東京入りすることをお勧めしているのも、暑熱馴化の期間を考慮してのことです。

2019-05-27

Super heat wave

It serves us right.

In this summer, the name is "hell", we'll get what we deserved.

2019-05-04

論文よんでみた

Forecasting Climatic Trends Using Neural Networks: An Experimental Study Using Global Historical Data

よんでみました。多くの文章誤読しているので、これを元に論文判断しないように。

論文は: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/frobt.2019.00032/full

 やったこ

この論文は、30年間の気象データ学習データにし、その後の10年間で平均気温が上がるまたは下がることの予測を試みた。

学習には、文字識別で高い判別精度をだしたLeNet(CNN)を用いた。

著者らはまず、30年分の月間平均気温データをRを用いて画像化した(fig.1)。

画像化の際に、描画方法を3種類の描画方法データ作成し、それぞれの場合での学習機を作成した。

その結果、defaultを用いると最も良い予測ができている。

つぎに、データ10年ごとに区切った場合そして、地域データを区切っった場合学習機を作成した。

正答の精度をそれぞれの学習機で計測している。

からなかったこと・しつもん
訓練データ

2019-02-03

国家事業であるCool Japan嘲笑の的にしかならないなか、一企業であるネトフリが日本コンテンツの輸出に成功しかけてるのはなんとも言い難いね

Netflix

日本でも浸透してきてると聞くが、アメリカでも俺の周りだとみんな普通に加入してる感じ。昔のテレビのよう。最近Netflixで何を観た、あれ面白いよね、という会話がもはや日常。逆にAmazon PrimeとかHuluについて同じような会話は俺の周りでは聞かない。テラスハウスとかコンマリとかも周りの人は見てて、日本では本当に男女の恋愛あんな感じなのかとかの質問を良くされる。俺はドキュメンタリーをよく見る。最近では「Abstract」「Rotten」「Salt Fat Acid Heat」とかが面白かった。「Roma」が良かったと複数の友人から勧められたので今度見る。

anond:20190202071054

2019-02-02

アメリカ流行ってるサービス: 俺と周りの場合

https://anond.hatelabo.jp/20181129233609

同じくSF在住。いいまとめサンキュ。他に俺が個人的によく使うのは:

Lime

ここ1〜2年で急激に伸びてきた電動自転車電動スクーター(電動のスケボーハンドルが付いたようなもの)のシェアリングサービスBirdなど競合も。各スクーターGPSトラッキングされていてスマホアプリで近くにあるスクーター検索できる。使い終わったら乗り捨て。割とそこらじゅうに乗り捨ててあったりする時もあるので街の景観ちょっと変わった感があるが、それを超えて便利。でも乗る場所によっては割と危ない。大きな事故が出てくると規制もありうるかも。(追記:chanmiaさんのブコメによるとすでに規制されて台数が減ってるそうです。指摘感謝です)

Netflix

日本でも浸透してきてると聞くが、アメリカでも俺の周りだとみんな普通に加入してる感じ。昔のテレビのよう。最近Netflixで何を観た、あれ面白いよね、という会話がもはや日常。逆にAmazon PrimeとかHuluについて同じような会話は俺の周りでは聞かない。テラスハウスとかコンマリとかも周りの人は見てて、日本では本当に男女の恋愛あんな感じなのかとかの質問を良くされる。俺はドキュメンタリーをよく見る。最近では「Abstract」「Rotten」「Salt Fat Acid Heat」とかが面白かった。「Roma」が良かったと複数の友人から勧められたので今度見る。

DoorDash

代行でレストラン食べ物を取りに行ってデリバリーしてくれるサービス。Seamlessなどの競合も多いしアメリカ国内でも場所によって人気度が違うみたい。東海岸旅行した時に現地の友達Airbnbの部屋で宅飲みしようとしてDoorDashで注文しようと言ったら何それ普通Seamlessだべと言われた。結構割高だし、飲み物やサイドオーダーを取ってくるのを忘れるといったちょっとしたミスは割と多いが、払い戻しなどは可。選べるレストランは多い。代行dasherが今どこにいるか地図表示、予想到着時間、「もうすぐ着きますメッセージアラートなどがあり、精度はやや甘いが便利。

OpenTable

レストランリアルタイムオンライン予約サービスアメリカではこの分野を開拓した存在で、店内の注文管理機能と一体になってるシステムゴリゴリ営業で納入して加盟店を増やしたという話を昔聞いた。人気口コミサイトYelpオンライン予約をサポートするようになったので俺もOpenTableを使う機会はやや減ってきたが、ちょっといい感じのレストランとかの予約にはまだ使うかな。

Instacart

食料品を代行でショッピングして即日配達してくれるサービス。俺は使ったことないがスーパーの店内ではInstacartのTシャツを着た代行ショッパーを良く見かける。

Zillow

不動産検索サイトグーグルマップ感覚視覚的に使いやすい。住宅販売物件賃貸物件情報豊富で、間取り金額そして学区のランクなどいろんな条件で検索できる。Redfinなど競合も多い。売りや貸しに出てない物件でも推定金額が表示される。ズームインしていくと表示中の全ての家という家に金額マッピング表示されるのはなかなか圧巻。友達のあの人の家の資産価値も分かってしまう!物件の部屋の中などの写真豊富で、しかも多くはいい感じの家具内装でいい感じに盛られてる(ステージングといって、これをやる専門業者がいる)ので、見てるだけでも楽しいちょっとした脳内バケーションになる。

Houzz

家具インテリアのコーディネートのヒントになるプロ撮影写真カテゴリ別に大量に見れる。ちょっと庶民には無理という写真も多いが、これも脳内バケーション妄想が膨らんで楽しいプライスタグアイコンが付いてる家具は実際に買える。担当したインテリアコーディネーターに連絡することもできる。これでヒントだけ得てPinterestで似たようなIKEAハックを探すのが俺のパターン

PayPal

個人間の送金は少なくとも俺の周りだとまだPayPalが強い。数年前にCashとかの他のサービスが出てきて使う人もいたけど俺の周りはPayPalに戻ってる。何が特別便利ということもないが、通常の銀行口座だと個人間の支払は小切手なので(振込はお互いが同じ銀行でないと手数料が高い)、いくら小切手スキャンと換金が今ではスマホカメラでできるようになったとはいえ、面倒なのはアメリカ人にとっても事実オンラインショッピングでも支払はクレジットカードPayPalというところが多い。送金手数料無料PayPalはもはや第二の銀行口座として定着してる。(追記:vanillayetiさんとchanmiaさんのブコメによるとVenmoの方がイケてるとのこと。指摘感謝です)

Robinhood

手数料無料で株の売買が超簡単にできる。俺は株やったことなかったがちょうどいい入門になってる。Bitcoinに散々振り回されてからRobinhoodに出会い、これでいいじゃんという人が俺を含めて周囲にもチラホラ。

LinkedIn

ビジネス向けSNSと良く紹介されるが、転職活動時の職務経歴書としての機能が強い。ハイテク系の会社ではLinkedInページへのリンクを送ればレジュメCVを提出しなくてもいいというところもある。リクルーターからの連絡や昔の同僚からの誘いなども良く来るが、本気で転職先を探す時はHired.comなど他のサイトも同時に使う。

Glassdoor

会社自分給料いくらもらってるか、会社雰囲気はどうかといった情報匿名で共有するサービス職種役職によって横断的にも検索できる。面接でどんな質問をされたとかの情報も。求人情報も多く、職の大体の給与幅を予想してくれたりする。

Zoom

ビデオ会議システム個人ユーザ間だとまだSkypeだったりメッセンジャー音声通話機能FaceTimeを使ったりも多いが、会社仕事だと今はZoomが強い印象。会議室の大型ディスプレイなどとも統合やすく、支社間や取引先とのZoomビデオ会議出張先や在宅で仕事してるメンバーも加わってパソコンの画面を共有しながら会議する、みたいな場面は日常的。

Zendesk

カスタマーサービスを問い合わせチケット管理プロセスやFAQ管理システム統合により効率化した感じのサービスで、自社製品カスタマーサポートページだけZendeskに飛ばすようにしてる会社も多い。

Hopsy

俺が使ってるというだけで、流行ってるかは全く知らない。ビールサーバを購入して(ただし紹介で加入すると無料)、月額料金を払うと生ビールの小型ケグ(約2リットル)を毎月4つ配達してくれる。地ビールが多く、バリエーション豊富。軽め、苦め、重めの3つの風味から選ぶ(組み合わせも可)。月額会費分については特定銘柄ビールを選ぶことはできず選んだ風味でランダムなのが送られてくるが、個別に追加購入する時は指定OKアメリカは今インディアンペールエール(IPA)が大人気で、苦め風味を選ぶとほとんど重複なく次々と初めて見るIPAが送られてくる。どれも美味しい。ビールサーバから注いで飲む冷え冷えのIPA最高です。(追記:会費は毎月約$60です。俺は紹介で加入したのでビールサーバ無料だった)

追記1:

TurboTax

aoiro-cakeさんのブコメで指摘がありましたが確かにこれは外せません。毎年4月15日の夜に駆け込みでTurboTaxのサイト確定申告する俺。毎回来年こそはもう少し早くやろうって思うんだけどね。

スタバアプリ

vanillayetiさんのブコメで指摘がありましたが確かに使ってます。支払も画面上のバーコード会計スキャンするだけ。ポイントを貯めて無料で飲むラテの美味いこと。アプリであらかじめ注文して並ばずにピックアップできるのも便利。長距離ドライブの休憩ポイントを決めるのにもアプリ店舗検索を良く使います

追記2:

元増田にJIRAとかがあったのでZendeskとかZoomを入れてみたのだけど、他にもビジネスで使われるサービスは多数でこれが定番とか流行とかは良く知らない。俺の周りだと、会社で使う各種オンラインツールシングルサインオンOkta、経費精算はConcur、人事評価プロセスはWorkdayみたいな感じだが、会社によってこのへんは色々な気がするし、今挙げたツールUI微妙だったりしてまだ開拓余地がある感じ。これらの多くのサービス会社IPOしていてRobinhoodで買えるので、自分が実際に日常的に使っているツール使用感とか、今使ってる企業が他のサービスに乗り換えるコストはどうか、将来どう進化しそうかとかを考えて株を買うか決めたりしてる。

2018-11-01

スマッシュブラザーズ、新キャラPVの「参戦!」英語まとめ

スマッシュブラザーズ新規キャラクター参戦が発表されるたびにYoutubeリアクション動画投稿されて話題になっていますね!

自分もそのての動画を見て楽しんでいたのですが、リドリー参戦を見た時に気になったことがありました。

Ridley Hits the Big Time!

あれ?日本語ではすべて「リドリー参戦!」といった具合に「~参戦!」で統一されているけど、英語版はそれぞれ違っていてバリエーションがあるのかな?  …と

調べてもこれをまとめたのが見つからなかったので、まとめてみました。

キャラクター名(日本語キャラクター名(英語参戦!の英語表記語句語句意味意味言葉遊び?要素(推測)
むらびとVillagerVillager Comes to Town!---
ロックマンMega ManMega Man Joins the Battle!---
Wii Fit トレーナWii Fit TrainerWii Fit Trainer Weighs In!weigh in計量する、割って入る、仲裁に入る計量する→体重測定?
ロゼッタチコRosalina & LumaRosalina & Luma launch into battle!launch into始める、門出するLaunch:(ロケットなどを)打ち上げる→ほうき星天文台
リトルマックLittle MacLittle Mac Punches In!punch in打ち込むボクサー
リザードンCharizardCharizard Fires it Up!fire up火をつける、始動させる、駆り立てるほのおタイプポケモン
ゲッコウガGreninjaGreninja Makes A Splash!make a splash音を立てる、あっと言わせる、水しぶきを上げるみずタイプポケモン
パルテナPalutenaPalutena Alights!alight降りる(天から)降りる?
パックマンPac-ManPac-Man Hungers for Battle!hunger for切望するHunger←ゲーム性から
ルキナLucinaLucina Wakes Her Blade?!--ファイアーエンブレム 覚醒(Awakening)とかけてる?
ルフレRobinRobin Brings the Thunder!--サンダーソードという武器を使う
シュルクShulkShulk Foresees a Fight!foresee見越す、予見する未来視という能力がある
クッパJr.Bowser Jr.Bowser Jr. Clowns the Competition!clownふざけるいたずら
ダックハントDuck HuntDuck Hunt Takes Aim!take aim狙いを定めるカモを狙い撃つゲーム性から
ミュウツーMewtwoMewtwo Strikes Back!strike back殴り返す、反撃するミュウツーの逆襲
リュカLucasLucas Comes Out of Nowhere!come out of nowhere突然やってくるリュカはノーウェア(Nowhere)島に住んでいる
ロイRoyRoy Seals the Deal!seal the deal契約を結ぶ、取引を固めるロイ封印(seal)の剣の主人公
リュウRyuHere Comes A New Challenger! Ryu--ストリートファイター乱入時のメッセージ
クラウドCloudCloud Storms into Battle!storm into押し入る、突入するStorm Clouds(凶兆、悪いことが起こる前兆
カムイCorrinCorrin Chooses to Smash!choose to do決めるファイアーエンブレムifの「運命分岐点」で選択肢を選ぶから
ベヨネッタBayonettaBayonetta Gets Wicked!---
リドリーRidleyRidley Hits the Big Time!hit the big time成功する、一流になる、大当たりするRidley is too big.というネットミーム
シモンSimonSimon Lashes Out!lash out暴力攻撃する、食って掛かるLash(ムチ)→メインウェポンがムチ
リヒターRichterRichter Crosses Over!cross overクロスオーバーする、枠を超えるCross→横必殺技クロス十字架ブーメラン
クロムChromChrom Joins the Battle!---
ダークサムスDark SamusDark Samus Joins the Battle!---
キングクルールKing K. RoolKing K. Rool Comes Aboard!come aboard(船に)乗り込む、参加する船に乗り込む→キャプテン
しずえIsabelleIsabelle Turns Over A New Leaf!turn over a new leaf改心する、心機一転するとびだせ どうぶつの森」の英語タイトルが「Animal Crossing: New Leaf
ケンKenKen Turns Up the Heat!turn up the heat温度をあげる、強火にする、勢いを増すケンリュウと違い、昇龍拳で火を噴く
ガオガエンIncineroarIncineroar Enters the Ring!enter the ringリングに入るプロレス技を使うキャラクターなので
パックンフラワーPiranha PlantPiranha Plant Pipes Up!pipe upしゃべり(歌い)始める、甲高い声で話す、汲み上げる土管
バンジョーカズーBanjo-KazooieBanjo-Kazooie are Raring to Go!raring to go今か今かと待ち切れない、~したくてしかたがない開発元がRare社
勇者HeroThe Hero Draws Near!draw nearそこに向かって動く

備考)ベヨネッタの「Get Wicked」は調べてもヒットせず、いまいちわかりませんでした。Wickedは「邪悪な、いたずらな」という意味

こうしてみるとキャラの特徴をとらえた言葉選びがあって面白いですね!

調べてたら発見した関連ページ

http://smashbrossp.net/archives/8777

https://smashbrosmatome.work/2018/09/17/post-3706/

http://smashwiki.info/%E3%82%B9%E3%83%9E%E3%83%96%E3%83%A9SP%E3%81%AE%E5%8F%82%E6%88%A6%E3%83%A0%E3%83%BC%E3%83%93%E3%83%BC%E3%83%BB%E3%83%97%E3%83%AD%E3%83%83%E3%83%88%E9%9B%86

追記

遊んだことな元ネタゲームが多く言葉遊び要素が分からなくて探すのに苦労しました。コメントでご指摘いただいた部分は修正してます

あと自分はどっかまとまった情報が見たかっただけなので、誰かこの情報をどこかのサイトにまとめ直してくれてもいいです。

2018-08-23

anond:20180823203630

いろいろあるが・・・前衛的なものを出してもしょうがないだろうから、それを省いていくつか。

クラシック

題名Music for Piano

作曲:Irving Fine

作曲年:1947

ttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4l0Rxc3MFHA

日本では全くといっていいいほど知られていない作曲家。海外でも再演には恵まれていない。この曲は多くの有名作曲家を輩出したナディア・ブーランジェに献呈された曲。


題名Prélude en Ré♭

作曲:Lili Boulanger

作曲年:1912

ttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fT8fJMyOJRw

上の曲で献呈されたナディア・ブーランジェの妹による作品24歳にして夭逝


題名:Sonatine

作曲:Bela Bartok

作曲年:1915

ttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=raIdacyJtf4

バルトーク民族音楽研究者であったり、かつて存在した国際連盟精神的協力委員の側面を持つ学者肌な作曲家。クラシック音楽を聴かない人でも、日本では劇的!ビフォーアフター使用曲で有名だろう。


現代音楽

題名:Phrygian gates

作曲:John Adams

作曲年:1978

ttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-7r8XV1bylY

久石譲が好きだと言うので、おそらくは抑えていると思いますが。題名通り、フリギア旋法に基づいている作品ミニマリズムの反復的な影響を残しつつも形式を重んじ音楽の変化が明確に感じられる作品


題名Piano Sonata

作曲:Erkki-Sven Tüür

作曲年:1985

ttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TpUGPptpq1o

北欧作曲家は比較的調性を感じさせる穏健な作風であるため、氏の作品日本でも演奏に取り上げられることが現代音楽にしては多く、受容が進んでいる。ウケが良いのは間違いなく3楽章


題名Piano Etude I "Frozen Heat"

作曲藤倉

作曲年:1998

ttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-xwjS8mi8Qo

私が書くより本人の弁を直接読んだほうがいいだろう。

ttps://www.daifujikura.com/un/lw_frozenheat.html


ゲーム音楽

題名フィールド 昼(仮題)

ゲームゼルダの伝説 ブレス オブ ザ ワイルド

発売年:2017

ttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xGi23M_5lXg

ゼルダの伝説時のオカリナ以降作品ごとにフィーチャーされる楽器が代わるが、今作はピアノがメイン。ゲームの多くでピアノの音が聞かれる

この音楽インタラクティブミュージックであり、いくつかの音型、強弱などの要素を組み合わせて演奏される。ソース元の動画あくまで一部分であり、ゲームに耳を傾ければもっと多くの音楽が聞こえてくる。楽譜に起こすならば20世紀前衛音楽を参照する必要があり、正直に言うとこれを現代音楽カテゴリに入れてしまいたい気持ちを抑えてゲーム音楽の枠に押し込んでいる。


題名遺跡(仮題)

ゲームゼルダの伝説 ブレス オブ ザ ワイルド

発売年:2017

ttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bRB1WlOE6Eg

こちらはインタラクティブミュージックではない。私も書き起こして弾いてみたがこれは未経験者でも少しの練習で弾ける程度に易しい。ピアノをフィーチャーした作品とは言え、純然たるピアノ曲は数えるほどしかない。これはその中の一曲


題名:"β"4

ゲーム:サガ・フロンティア

作曲:浜渦 正志

発売年:1999

ttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=96FG6hvr-DE

この曲はサガ・フロンティア2で使用された曲を作曲者本人がまとめあげた作品集の一曲清新和声感と統一されたモティーフからゲーム音楽の枠に留めておくには惜しい格調高い作品として仕上がっている。これに限らず、全曲オススメ


リストを挙げると解説を書きたくなるのでこれにてゴメン

URLがh抜きなのはそのまま投稿すると拒否されるからなんだぜ

2018-07-08

Every years, ultra heavy rains, typhoons, tornados, droughts, heat waves and cold waves are hitting and engulfing all over the world.

New geological age are beginning, changes natural features and the atmosphere.

We have to prepare for the worst.

2018-07-04

バトルメックのテクノロジー(前半)

原文:

 https://bg.battletech.com/universe/battlemech-technology/

バトルテックテクノロジー

BattleMech Technology

 現代型バトルメックは、3000年以上にわたる戦争技術の発展がたどり着いた最終的回答だ。恐るべき破壊力と並ぶものなき機動性を融合させたバトルメックは、かつて製造された中でもおそらく最も複雑なマシンだろう。31世紀の戦場におけるまごう事なき支配であるバトルメックは、その至高の王座を今後数世紀にわたって保障されているかに見える。

 1機のメックは数千種類の構成要素からなるが、大まかには6つのグループに分けることができる。コクピット、シャーシ、推進・移動装置、電源システム、装甲、武器電子装備である。以下ではそれぞれについて解説する。バトルメックの大多数は二足歩行であるしかし、四足(もしくは四脚)型設計のバトルメックも少数存在する。

コクピット COCKPIT

 全てのバトルメックにはコクピットがある。普通はメックの「頭部」に位置する。あるいは、それに近い部分におかれる。また、コクピットサイズはメックによって異なる(メックが大きければコクピットも大きい)とはいえ、すべてに共通する特徴もある。

 コマンドカウチは、6点ハーネスで固定されてメック戦士が座る所だ。メック戦士の冷却ベストメディカルモニタはこのイスに接続されている。また、イスの背には衣類や非常食を入れる小さな収納がある。加えて、強制射出を強いられる際には、コマンドカウチコクピットから脱出するメック戦士乗り物となる。爆破ボルトコクピットの上部または側面を吹き飛ばしジェット噴射で安全域に向かう。

 コマンドカウチの肘掛部にあるジョイスティックによって、メック戦士はメックの腕を操作し胴を旋回させる。さら武装の照準を合わせ、発射する。フットペダルはメックの脚部による移動をコントロールする。そして、両足のペダル踏み込むと、メックのジャンプジェット(もし装備されているなら)が点火される。

 メック戦士の正面にはメインスクリーンがあり、コンピュータが描き出す周囲360度の視界が正面に一目で見えるよう圧縮されている。照準用のレティクルがスクリーン上に現れてジョイスティック操作追従し、ターゲットロックした際にはそれを表示する。スクリーン上の画像を拡大することも出来る。

 メインスクリーン上下左右における副次的モニター群の正確な配置は設計によって異なる。レーダースクリーンはメインスクリーン直下に配置され、様々に設定を切り替えることができる。設定には標準、赤外線磁気異常、動体などがある。状態表示図はメックの外見が線画で描かれたもので、外部と内部が受けたダメージのみならず、攻撃力・防御力についても常時表示する。マップディスプレイコンピューターに記録済みの地図セットにロードされた、ほとんど無数にある地図を切り替えて表示できる。場合によっては、現地の衛星部隊司令部接続されてリアルタイム画像を表示することさえも可能だ。

ニューロヘルメット NEUROHELMET

 上記の様々なシステムも、身長12メートル金属製巨人を実際に直立歩行させる神経電位走査ヘルメットがなければ何の意味も持たない。一般ニューロヘルメットと呼ばれるこの嵩張る代物は、メック戦士の頭部を完全に覆い、冷却ベスト肩に固定されている。内部の電極は姿勢、移動、バランス、速度に関する生データを人の脳のための神経電流に変換し、バトルメックのセンサーから情報を直接パイロットに流し込む。同時に、ヘルメットとそれに接続されたコンピューターはメック戦士の脳が発する神経電流制御信号翻訳してメックのジャイロスコープ人口筋肉に直接伝達する。これによって、パイロットは柔軟な動作意識せずに制御できる。その間、意識のある脳は自由に各種兵器や他のシステム必要に応じて操作することができるのだ。

シャーシ CHASSIS

 バトルメックは何ダースもの「骨」からなるシャーシを持っている。各々の「骨」は、ハニカム構造の発泡アルミニウム製の芯を、高張力炭化ケイ素の単繊維で包み、更に剛性のチタニウム鋼による防護を施したものである。この人工の「骨」にはマイアマー製の「筋肉」とサーボ機構を接合するアタッチメントポイントがあり、これらがバトルメックを駆動する。この骨格構造によって、バトルメックは応力外殻構造車両に比べてより脆弱性が低く、修理もしやすくなっている。

 通常のメック骨格よりも嵩張るが重量は半分という「エンドー・スチール」と呼ばれる特殊タイプの内部構造も開発されている。

電源システム POWER SYSTEMS

 バトルメックは移動と戦闘のために大規模で恒常的な電力供給必要とする。核融合反応炉はただの水から莫大な電力を作り出すことが可能で、これだけの電力を供給するには最も効率の良いシステムである。バトルメックの発電システムが発生させる核融合反応では中性子は発生しないため、恒久的に運転したとしても発電システム放射能を帯びることはない。

 核融合発電プラント磁気流体力学として知られるプロセスを経て電力を作り出す。このプロセスにおいては、磁場核融合反応からプラズマを引き出して円環状にする。プラズマは伝導体であり、ゆえに円環は強力な発電コイルとして機能し、電力と廃熱を発生させるのである。この廃熱の発散を補助するために、バトルメックはどれもヒートシンクと呼ばれるラジエーター(放熱器)を装備している。機体内部の温度が過度に上昇すると、バトルメックの反応炉周辺にある磁気収納容器を破壊してしまう。もしも発電プラント磁気的な「瓶」が壊れると、制御されない核融合反応が発生し、中性子放出されるとともにバトルメックの内部システムとメック戦士は致命的な放射線被曝を被ることになる。 一般的に使われるメックのエンジンには、標準型、軽量型、超軽量型の3種類がある。核融合エンジンは軽量型、超軽量型、と軽くなっていくが、サイズは逆に大きく嵩張るも

推進・移動システム LOCOMOTION/MOVEMENT SYSTEMS

 バトルメックを駆動し移動を制御するシステムには2種類ある。電子的に制御される小さな駆動装置が軽量の兵器センサー群を動かす。マイアマー(人工筋肉)と呼ばれるポリアセチレン繊維がメックの四肢や主要な兵器制御する。マイアマーは電流を受けると収縮するという人間筋肉によく似た物質である。バトルメックのマイアマーが戦闘中に損傷したなら、技術兵は繊維束を交換するか、メックの骨格の別部位から移植」することができる。移植されたマイアマー繊維束は損傷した四肢機能を完全に回復させることはできないが、限定的な機動力動力を与えることはできる。

移動能力 MOVEMENT CAPABILITIES

 バトルメックの歩行もしくは走行速度は、平地であれば時速40km~100km以上に達する。密な森林、泥濘、急斜面では速度が低下するが、メックの足を完全に止めるような地形はきわめて少ない。加えて、多くのメックは、核融合炉で空気を超高温にまで熱し、いわゆる「ジャンプジェットから噴出させることで障害物をジャンプで跳び越えることができる。(大気を持たない惑星世界で行動するジャンプ可能なバトルメックは、しばしば少量の水銀ジェット反動質量として携行する)また、全てのバトルメックは河川や小さな湖沼を渡る際には水中行動が可能である

 降下型バトルメックは、低軌道からの強襲降下をおこなうことができる。脚部に内蔵された特殊反動ジェットによって、320kmまでの高度からの軟着陸が可能となる。再突入の際は、脱着式の融除シールド脆弱センサーや兵装を保護する。

排熱システム戦略 HEAT-DISSIPATION SYSTEMS AND STRATEGIES

 バトルメックの各システム戦闘中には限界まで酷使されるため、戦闘を開始したメックは速やかに大量の排熱を発生する。この熱によって核融合炉の磁気収納容器シールド崩壊したり、メックの電子装備やコンピュータシステム障害が発生したり永久的な損害を与える可能性がある。それによってメックの移動は遅くなり、武器の正確性は減少する。

 ヒートシンクはメックの蓄積する熱をコントロールする手段の一つである。これら放熱器から放出される熱は、明確で特徴的な赤外線反応を作り出す事があるが、これによってメックは標的になりやすくなる。この問題回避するために、メック戦士たちはヒートシンク以外の方法で熱の蓄積をコントロールする方法確立した。彼らは、自分マシンを浅い湖や川に配置する。(伝導と対流によって、流れる水がメック内部の熱の発散を助ける)。温暖な、もしくは寒冷な惑星世界では、大気のものが熱の発散を助けてくれる。一方、砂漠ジャングルといった環境における高い外気温はバトルメックの熱の問題をより悪化させる。

 もっと一般的な熱蓄積の制御法は、メックの移動速度や武器の発射速度を、手動で調整することである。あるいは、メックの移動制御コンピューターやその補助システムをリプログラムしてしまうこともある。これらのコンピューターは、メック各部の稼動率を制限し、結果として熱の蓄積も制限する。たとえば、高温の惑星世界に送られる際は、稼動率は低く設定されるだろう。メックはゆっくりと移動し、温暖な惑星に比べれば射撃の頻度も低下する。極地での戦闘に送られるメックであれば、稼動率は高めに設定され、移動速度も射撃速度も高くなるだろう。リプログラムは通常バトルメック部隊が任地に移動するまでの降下船内でおこなわれる。このプロセスには、約2週間がかかる。

 バトルメックは常時、戦闘環境において想定される外気温に合わせて調整されている。そのため、外気温の急上昇はメックの排熱能力破壊的なインパクトを及ぼす可能性がある。こうしたメックの特性を利用する一連の戦闘技術を、戦術家たちは発展させてきた。たとえば、敵メックが森林を通過中であれば、指揮官がこれに火を放つの普通作戦である。超高温にまで加熱された空気はメックの周囲に渦を巻き、冷却システム破壊するか、能力を劇的に減衰させ、結果としてバトルメックの戦闘能力に負荷をかけるのである

装甲

ARMOR

 2層に分かれた装甲による防護が、バトルテックエネルギー兵器実弾兵器から防御する。装甲外部層を成す整列結晶鋼はきわめて良好な熱伝導性を持つため、レーザー及び粒子ビーム兵器に対して素晴らしい防御力を発揮する。内部層はダイヤモンド結晶繊維にしみこませた窒化ホウ素であり、高性能炸薬徹甲弾(HEAP)および高速中性子ストップする。この第2層は装甲の破片が内部システムを傷つけるのを防ぐ役割も持つ。

 通常の装甲に加えて、一般的に使用される特殊な装甲が2種類存在している。これについては後述する。

フェロ・ファイブラス FERRO-FIBROUS

 フェロ・ファイブラス装甲(繊維合金装甲)は通常のバトルメック装甲の改良版である鋼鉄合金チタニウム合金の繊維を編み上げて引っ張り強度を大きく向上させている。一方で、同重量の標準型の装甲版より体積が大きくなる。

ステルス・アーマー STEALTH ARMOR

 ごく最近技術であり、現時点ではカペラ大連邦国のみが独占している。装甲の形状と構成システムの補強に用い、ガーディアンECMスーツ接続している。これによって比較遠距離からの照準を困難にし、メックに実質的な「ステルス能力を与える。


(原文ではこの後に各種武器解説が入る。気が向いたら後半もやる)

2017-10-22

Equipment ~ Tabidachi ~ Burning Heat白飯食える

Tumblrビッグバイパーを見かけてグラ2の音楽が聞きたくなってYouTubeで探したとこから

沙羅曼蛇 ドラスピ ワルキューレの伝説 源平討魔伝 ドルアーガ 奇々怪々 ・・・

と行った感じで台風選挙な一日を過ごしてしまった。

2017-08-03

日産子供が車内に放置され熱中症になる件、の対策できた」

少し前に「子供が車内に放置され熱中症になる件に自動車メーカー対策しろ」てな内容の増田ホテントリした。

この増田提言を受け(ウソ)、日産子供の車内放置対策する仕組みを開発した。

その仕組みは増田提案したような人感センサーもしくは赤外線センサー通報システムを追加する複雑なものではなく、

後席ドアの開閉を感知し、車に乗り込んだ際に後席ドアを開閉したが降りる時に後席ドアを開閉しないと

まずはメーター内に警告表示し、ドライバーがそれに反応せず車を降りると軽くホーンを鳴らして知らせる、というもの

これなら「この程度なら車の価格に影響なんてほとんどない」だろう。

詳しくは↓の記事動画に。

Nissan Aims To Prevent Heat-Related Deaths With New Rear Door Alert System

http://www.carscoops.com/2017/08/nissan-aims-to-prevent-heat-related.html

Nissan Rear Door Alert

https://youtu.be/RuHevTPpa5A

また増田が世の中を良い方向に導いちゃったな!!!

2016-04-14

detox

Toxins are everywhere. Car exhaust, secondhand smoke, flame retardants, plastic packaging, heavy metals, pesticides, BPA-coated receipts… Unless you’re living in virgin forest, you’re going to come into contact with some less-than-optimal chemicals pretty much every day.

That’s definitely no reason to panic. In fact, small doses of toxins may be good for you because of a phenomenon called hormesis – mild stress makes your cells work more efficiently. However, your body can have trouble clearing certain toxins. You eliminate most of the bisphenol-A (BPA) and other plastics you ingest, but a small percentage hides away in your fat cells, messing with your hormones and accumulating over time. It’s the same deal with several mold toxins, heavy metals like lead, nickel, cadmium, mercury, and aluminum, and with certain pharmaceuticals and drugs like THC.

A good detox protocol can help you eliminate these more stubborn toxins. The trouble is that many common detoxes don’t work. Juice and water cleanses, for example, are often actually counterproductive because they deprive your body of essential nutrients it needs to function. That said, there are a few genuine ways to detox.

Because so many toxins stay in your fat cells, one way to detox is through lipolysis – breaking down your fat cells and releasing the hard-to-reach toxins stored within them. Lipolysis is especially effective when you combine it with liver and kidney support or adsorbents that can suck up the released toxins. This article focuses on all of the above. Let’s start with saunas.

1) Sauna sessions

Sweating does more than cool you off. It also helps you get rid of both heavy metals and xenobiotics – foreign compounds like plastics and petrochemicals – in small but significant amounts. A 2012 review of 50 studies found that sweating removes lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury, especially in people with high heavy metal toxicity [1]. Another study put participants in both traditional and infrared saunas and found similar results [2]. Sweating also eliminates hormone-disrupting BPA, which accumulates in your fat cells [3].

There’s debate about the best kind of sauna for detoxification. A couple studies have shown that infrared saunas are the most effective for detoxing, but the research was funded by infrared sauna companies, so the results are questionable. Both traditional and infrared saunas are effective for detoxing [2]. That said, I prefer infrared saunas for a few reasons:

They don’t get as hot. Traditional saunas heat the air around you, while infrared light penetrates and heats your tissue directly. You sweat in an infrared sauna at around 130-150 degrees instead of at 180-200 degrees, so you can stay in for longer without feeling like you’re going to pass out. I’ve done 2-hour infrared sauna sessions (drinking salt water the whole time to replenish electrolytes and fluids, of course).

They’re easier on your electric bill. Again, infrared saunas require less energy, especially if you get a sauna that reflects infrared light back on you. This one, for example, costs about 15 cents an hour to run.

Infrared saunas are often cheaper.

I personally use a Sunlighten infrared sauna and love it. If you don’t want to buy an infrared sauna and there isn’t one around you, a standard sauna will work perfectly well [2]. There’s probably one in your local gym.

Keep in mind that sweating pulls electrolytes and trace minerals from your body, so it’s important to drink a lot of fluids and get plenty of salt (preferably Himalayan pink salt or another mineral-rich natural salt) if you’re going to use a sauna to detox [2].

2) Exercise

Exercise is another way to flush toxins from your body, and through more than just making you sweat. Exercise increases lipolysis (the breakdown of fat tissue), releasing toxins stored in your fat tissue. Studies show that people who exercise and lose body fat end up with higher levels of circulating hormone disruptors [4]. Increasing lipolysis through diet does the same thing [5].

Mobilizing toxins isn’t necessarily a good thing, particularly if you’re unequipped to get rid of them. You want to be sure you’re getting rid of toxins, not just moving them to a different part of your body. Working out addresses the issue to a degree: it improves circulation, providing more oxygen to your liver and kidneys so they can better filter out toxins. You can also give your system even more support and pull out bad stuff with the next two detox tools: activated charcoal and glutathione.

3) Activated charcoal

Activated charcoal is a form of carbon that has massive surface area and a strong negative charge. It’s been around for thousands of years and it’s still used in emergency rooms today to treat poisoning.

Charcoal binds to chemicals whose molecules have positive charges, including aflatoxin and other polar mycotoxins [6], BPA [7], and common pesticides [8]. Once the chemicals attach to the charcoal you can pass them normally (i.e. poop them out).

Charcoal can bind to the good stuff, too, so I don’t recommend taking it within an hour of other supplements. Try taking a couple charcoal pills along with exercise or have a sauna session. They should adsorb many of the toxins you release into your gut and GI tract.

4) Glutathione

Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant that protects you from heavy metal damage, according to studies in both human and rat cells [9,10,11,12]. Glutathione also supports liver enzymes that break down mold toxins and heavy metals. Your digestion will destroy normal glutathione, so opt for a liposomal glutathione supplement that makes it through your stomach. You can also supplement with N-acetylcysteine and alpha-lipoic acid, which your body can use to build glutathione on its own [13]. If you have severe heavy metal or mycotoxin poisoning, talk to a naturopath or functional medicine doctor about intravenous (IV) glutathione. It’s expensive and less convenient than an oral supplement, but it works very well.

5) Cryolipolysis

We’ve talked about how heat and exercise can increase fat burning to detox your fat cells. It turns out cold can do the same. Cryochambers are gaining popularity with professional athletes and other high performers for their ability to quell inflammation. It turns out they can help you burn fat – and release the toxins stored in itas well.

A cryochamber uses liquid nitrogen to supercool your body, stimulating mitochondrial function and decreasing inflammation. Intense cold also destroys fat cells, which has led to cryolipolysis therapy as a way to slim down [14,15]. You can use it to detox, too.

Can’t get your hands on a cryochamber? Try traditional cold thermogenesis instead.

6) Ketosis

Quick disclaimer: I haven’t found studies specifically looking at ketosis and toxin load, so you may want to take this section with a grain of (Himalayan) salt. That said, ketosis is a very effective way to induce lipolysis, particularly if you’re fasting.

When you’re in ketosis and you haven’t eaten recently, your body breaks down your fat stores into free fatty acids, which it then converts to ketones for fuel. That means that, in theory, you should be able to supercharge your detox (and fat loss) by dropping into nutritional ketosis.

The Bulletproof Diet puts you into mild ketosis, which curbs your hunger and sharpens your brain without forcing you to forego carbs entirely. If you want to try nutritional ketosis for detoxing, youll have to modify the Bulletproof Diet slightly. Skip carb reefed days for a couple weeks and limit carbs to ~30-50 grams per day. You can use keto urine strips or – even better – a blood ketone meter to test and make sure you’re becoming fat-adapted. Once your levels read around 1.5 mg/dL, you’re comfortably in nutritional ketosis. At that point, fasting will attack your fat stores and mobilize toxins, which you can mop up with activated charcoal or sweat out (or both).

7) Chelation therapy for heavy metals

Chelation therapy is the strongest way to detox heavy metals. It can also be dangerous, so many doctors don’t recommend it unless you have moderate to severe heavy metal poisoning. Chelation therapy uses compounds called chelators that form strong bonds with heavy metals, leaving them unable to further poison your body. You can then pass them normally. Chelation therapy is very effective for removing lead, mercury, aluminum, arsenic, iron, and copper.

If you’ve been exposed to a lot of heavy metals, talk to a functional medicine doctor about chelation therapy. You really want to go to a medical professional for this one, because it’s so effective that if your liver and kidneys aren’t able to process the metals (a common problem in people with heavy metal poisoning) you can get seriously ill.

Combining detox methods for maximum effect

Each of these 7 methods works well on its own, and you can stack methods for an even greater effect. Exercise and sauna sessions are a good example. Preliminary evidence suggests that exercising and then hitting the sauna afterward will detoxify you better than either one alone does [16]. With that in mind, here’s a sample detox protocol:

Take 2-3 mL liposomal glutathione and 2-3 g vitamin C an hour before exercising.

Exercise for at least 20-30 minutes (HIIT is a good option).

Take 3-4 activated charcoal pills.

Spend 45-60 minutes in a sauna. Remember to get plenty of water and salt/electrolytes.

If you have a lot of fat and you’re burning it off quickly, you’re probably getting rid of a lot of toxins in one fell swoop, and you may get a headache, digestive problems, brain fog, etc. If that happens try taking more glutathione, vitamin C, and charcoal. Be sure you take charcoal at least an hour away from other supplements, as it binds to vitamin C.

Toxins are a fact of modern life, especially if you live in a city or somewhere with poor air quality, mold, and/or a lot of petrochemical byproducts. These detox methods can give your body a little extra support dealing with pollutants and help you perform your best.

Subscribe below if you want more info about how to upgrade your body and brain. Thanks for reading and have a great week!

2015-07-28

HEATちょっとだけ見た感想

AKIRA新世代のYANAGIBAかもしれない。

2015-07-19

自然日本語文を書くには

英文の私訳をちょこちょこすることがあって、違和感もたれないようにするにはどうすればよいかググって理解した内容を自分メモとしてまとめてみる。

次の例文を参考にする。不謹慎なのはご容赦いただきたい。

例文
英文
The heat killed many people.
和文
暑さで人がたくさん亡くなった。
スル言語とナル言語
英語

英語は力がどう動いたかに着目する。てこの原理のように、

The heat力点
killed支点
many people作用点

と考えると分かりやすい。

まり、「kill」という動作が「The heatから発せられて「many people」が受け取ったということになる。

日本語

日本語が状態の変化にのみ着目する。この場合

前は生きている状態
今は死んでいる状態

と変わったので、その状態変化を意味する「亡くなる」を遣う。

この後は

  • 誰が? → たくさんの人が
  • なんで? → 暑さで

という形で文に足していけばよい。

数量詞遊離

次の例文に違和感を持たれるだろうか。私は覚える。

―――郵便局の窓口にて
局員:いらっしゃいませ
 客:すみません、5枚の桜のマーク切手を下さい

客はどう言えばよかった

数量詞の遊離とはふつう動詞を修飾するべき数量詞が別のところを修飾してしま現象だ。上の例文だと「桜のマーク切手を5枚下さい」となるのが自然で、その場合は「下さい」を修飾することになる。

すみません、5枚、桜のマーク切手を下さい」と言うこともできるが、これも同じく「下さい」を修飾している。遊離先の場所が変わっただけだ。

many people

冒頭の例文も郵便局の例文と同じように考えることができる。「たくさんの人が亡くなった」と表現することもできるが、上記の遊離がされていないからことな翻訳調になってしまう。「亡くなった」を修飾するようにして、「人がたくさん亡くなった」とすれば自然文章が出来上がる。

まとめ

数量詞遊離はロジック面で不自然な文から自然な文に変える働きがある。

それ以上に重要なのがスルに着目するのかナルに着目するのかという考え方の違いだ。無生物主語の文に違和感を強烈に覚えるのもこうした考え方の違いなんだろう。この違いを覚えていると、英語の読み書きが楽になるんじゃないかと思う。

2014-07-22

新しく青のエージェントになった人へ

こんにちは、この記事は最近Ingressを始めてまだレベル8になっていない、東京活動している青のエージェントに向けて書いています

世の中にはいろいろな記事があります。こうすると効率がいい、こうすると他のエージェント迷惑になるからやめろ、などなど。

正直、初めてゲームプレイする人には情報量が多すぎるのではないでしょうか。

そこで、ここではなるべく簡潔にまとめたいと思います

最も重要なこと

あなたと青チームにとって、今一番大事なことは「あなたがなるべく早くレベル8になること」です。理由は3つあります

こういう理由で、私はあなたレベル8になることを心から願っています。また、例えば「変なリンクを張るな」だとか「変なModを入れるな」などの発言を弱いエージェントに対して行うエージェントに対しては残念に思っています。そういう発言のせいで行動をためらって成長が遅くなったり、やる気が減退したり、辞めてしまったりすることが青チームにもたらす損害の大きさがわかっていないのでしょう。

大事ことなのでもう一度いいます。今一番大事なことは「あなたがなるべく早くレベル8になること」です。青チームの中には細かいことを色々言う人も居ますが、気にせずあなたが一番効率がよいと思う方法レベルを上げましょう。彼もあなたも同じ1人のエージェントであり、立場は対等です。細かい俺俺ルールに従う必要はないのです。

以下では、3点ほど具体的に解説します。

リンクが張れるときには張ってよい

ポータルの密集地を横切るリンク迷惑だと言う人もいますしかし、何が迷惑リンクで何がそうでないのかは、ある程度自分リンクを張ってCF(三角形)を作る経験を積まないとわからないかと思いますレベル8になるまでに、理解できればよいでしょう。

iOSリリースの直前にパラメータ調整が入って、リチャージしなければ3日でポータルニュートラルになるようになっています。どんなリンクを張っても、3日放置すればなかったことになるわけです。気にせずどんどん張りましょう。

また、上級者はレアアイテムを使うことで都合の悪いリンクを壊すこともできますレベル8になるぐらいにはそのアイテム10個以上は持っているもんです。特定目的のために本当に都合が悪ければ、それを使って壊すだけです。

リンクを1つ張ると313APが手に入ります。運良くCFができれば、更に1250APが入ります

Modを入れられるときには入れて良い

スロットが埋まるのが迷惑だという人もいますが、本当に迷惑なのはごく一部のケースだけです。下記の優先順位をチラ見しておけば十分でしょう。

Modを1つ入れるたびに125APが手にはいます

ちなみに小ネタですが、ハックした後にHeat Sinkを入れると、即座にハック可能状態に戻ります。鍵が欲しかったのにドロップしなかった時などに有用です。

レゾネータをデプロイできるときには入れてもいい

中途半端にレゾネータが刺さっているポータルを見かけたとしましょう。それは敵に壊された場合と、初心者向けに意図的に開けてある場合とがあります。どちらの場合デプロイすることに遠慮はいりません。

レゾネータのデプロイ重要AP獲得方法です。1本目で500AP、その後1本挿すごとに125AP最後の1本を指すと250AP自分以外のレゾネータをアップグレードすることで65APが手に入ります

レゾネータを指すときにはポータルから離れろなどの細かいことを言うエージェントもいますしかし、そもそも低レベルエージェントスロットが空いた状態を発見できるようなポータルは、戦略上たいして重要ポータルではありません。気にせず好きなところから好きなだけデプロイしましょう。

世の中には、デプロイする距離と順番にまでこだわった、美しいポータルを作る人もいますゲームなのですからそれを楽しいと思うのであればそれをやることは正しいでしょう。ただ、完璧な配置をするのと、適当デプロイするのとで、実際のところ敵の武器消費量がどの程度変わるのか…というと、まあたいした差にはならない、実用上の根拠に乏しいただのコダワリです。あなたとそのエージェントとは対等な関係ですから、真似をしてもよいし、無視をしてもよいのです。

最後

あなたレベル8になることを、心から願っていますIngress Resistance Tokyo ( http://bit.ly/JoinIRT ) に参加すると、あなた活動範囲周辺でプレイしている他のプレイヤーコミュニケーションを取ることができますあなたレベル8になることを願い、手助けをしたいと思っている人がたくさんいます

2013-05-06

[]スレ立て代行依頼

 プロバイダーの設定ゆえ自宅パソコンから全く2chへと書き込みができないという素敵な状態になっているのでスレ立てを依頼したいです。当方スマホも持っておりませんでよろしくお願いしま

 夕方に書き込んだ時にはお一方代行してくださったんですが、時間帯が悪かったのかどうにもスレが伸びなかった(あと自分リアルタイムで見れなかった)のもあってもう一度お頼みしたい!

 以下内容


スレタイiPodでマイベスト30作ったったwwwwwwww


本文:

 スプリット スネオヘアー

 スロウレイン ACID MAN

 Fragment(the heat haze of summer) KAMIN

 夏影(Re-feel.ver) 麻枝准

 THINKER 星野康太

 natukage Lia

 恋心 Lia

 HANABI Lia

 human Lia

 白い夏と緑の自転車、赤い髪と黒いギター the pillows

 僕らの恋 riya

 This illusion M.H

 長い夢 YUKI

 BLANDNEW WAY ガネーシャ

 Jubilee くるり

 言葉はさんかくこころは四角 くるり

 夢じゃない スピッツ

 楓 スピッツ

 For フルーツバスケット 岡崎律子

 秘密基地 高田梢枝

 Dewprism EndingThema(Rue) square

 テルーの唄 手嶌葵

 時代 中島みゆき

 Forget-me-not 尾崎豊

 Lost my music 平野綾

 嵐の中で輝いて 米倉千尋

 you(Visionen im Spiegel) 癒月

 太陽 BUMP OF CHIKEN

 ロストマン BUMP OF CHICKEN

 いのち名前 木村弓

[]スレ立て代行依頼

 プロバイダーの設定ゆえ自宅パソコンから全く2chへと書き込みができないという素敵な状態になっているのでスレ立てを依頼したいです。当方スマホも持っておりませんでよろしくお願いしま


スレタイiPodでマイベスト30作ったったwwwwwwww


本文:

 スプリット スネオヘアー

 スロウレイン ACID MAN

 Fragment(the heat haze of summer) KAMIN

 夏影(Re-feel.ver) 麻枝准

 THINKER 星野康太

 natukage Lia

 恋心 Lia

 HANABI Lia

 human Lia

 白い夏と緑の自転車、赤い髪と黒いギター the pillows

 僕らの恋 riya

 This illusion M.H

 長い夢 YUKI

 BLANDNEW WAY ガネーシャ

 Jubilee くるり

 言葉はさんかくこころは四角 くるり

 夢じゃない スピッツ

 楓 スピッツ

 For フルーツバスケット 岡崎律子

 秘密基地 高田梢枝

 Dewprism EndingThema(Rue) square

 テルーの唄 手嶌葵

 時代 中島みゆき

 Forget-me-not 尾崎豊

 Lost my music 平野綾

 嵐の中で輝いて 米倉千尋

 you(Visionen im Spiegel) 癒月

 太陽 BUMP OF CHIKEN

 ロストマン BUMP OF CHICKEN

 いのち名前 木村弓

2012-01-06

Article 14 the mobile phone will know the battery skills

If users want to prolong battery the efficient use of the time, in addition to the quality of the charger to have the guarantee, the right skills and charging is essential, because of low quality charger or wrong charging methods would affect battery time and life cycle, the following is about to charge skills:

1. The battery before they leave the factory, manufacturers were activated processing, and the charge, so the battery are more electricity, my friends say battery charging adjustment period in accordance with the time, standby still seriously insufficient, assuming that the battery is really quality goods battery of words, this kind of circumstance should extend the setting and then 3 ~ 5 times fully charge and discharge.

2. If new phone is lithium ion battery, so before 3 ~ 5 times charging commonly known as adjustment period, should be charged more than 14 hours, in order to ensure that the fully activate lithium ion activity. The lithium ion battery no memory effects, but have very strong sui sex, should give full activated PANASONIC CGR-D220 Battery, to guarantee the use of after can reach the right performance.

3. Some automation intelligent quick charger when instructions lights change, said only full of 90%. The charger will automatically change with slow charge will batteries. Best will use after batteries, otherwise, it will shorten use time.

4. Before charging and discharging lithium battery does not need special, but will not discharge damage to the battery. As far as possible when charging at the slow ChongChongDian, reduce the way quick charge; Time don't more than 24 hours. The battery after three to five times fully recharge cycles of internal after chemical will be all "activate" to achieve the best use effect.

5. Please use the original or the reputation of the good brand charger, li-ion battery to lithium battery charger with special, and follow the instructions, otherwise, it will damage to the battery, and even dangerous.

6. Have many users often in charge still leave her cell phone, actually such will be very easy to PANASONIC CGA-S101E/1B Battery damage the service life of the mobile phone, because in charge of the process, the circuit boards of mobile phone can calorific, if this time more exotic phone, may produce instant backflow current, internal parts to mobile phone damage.

7. The battery life depends on the number repeatedly charging and discharging, so should try to avoid more battery electric charge when, this will shorten battery life. Cell phone time more than 7 days, supposed to completely discharge the cell phone battery, enough electricity before use.

8. The cell phone battery have self-discharge, need not when the nimh batteries will press the residual capacity every day, about 1% of the discharge, lithium battery every day to 0.2% ~ 0.3% discharge. In for the battery, try to use the special socket, don't will the home appliance such as the Shared and the TV charger socket.

9. Though the phones in the network coverage area, but in the cell phone charge, cell phones have been unable to accept and call. At this time, can use of the mobile phone is not transfer function, will be transferred to the mobile phone side of fixed telephone in order to prevent calls lost, this kind of method for mobile phone is not in the network coverage of the area or weak signal and temporarily unable to the applicable also.

10. Don't will be exposed to high temperature or cold PANASONIC DMW-BCG10E Battery , as the dog, should not put the phone on the car, and the sun blazed through the; Or get air conditioning room, in air conditioning to be blown continuously place. When charging, the battery is a little heat is normal, but can't let it what the high temperature "suffer". In order to avoid the happening of this kind of circumstance, had better be in charge at room temperature, and don't cover anything on the mobile phone.

11. Nickel cadmium (N iCd) before the battery must ensure that the batteries are no electricity, recharging the battery must ensure that sufficient electricity after.

12. If the cell phone battery placed too long and not use, the best maintenance department to cell phones to the application for a live processing, also can use a constant dc voltage is the voltage adjustment for 5 ~ 6 V, current 500 ~ 600 mA reverse connect battery. Note that a touch namely release, the most repeated three times can, through such treatment after another, with the original adapter to "adaptation" charge.

13. Charge is not as long as possible, to no protection circuit batteries that should stop after charging, or the battery will with fever or overheating impact performance.

14. Lithium ion battery must choose special charger, otherwise may not reach the saturated state, affect their performance. Charging completes, should avoid to place in charger on more than 12 hours or more, long-term need not when should make a battery and cell phone separation.

2012-01-05

How to make digital camera battery more durable

Digital camera battery is the key for the key, second in importance only lens I’m afraid, and in order to photograph in your heart, a powerful battery to provide power as a follow-up is essential. But even the best battery time, if not properly carry out maintenance and maintenance, will not take long to lose the strong power, so battery maintenance is very important.

Battery Maintenance

For a (section) digital camera battery for the duration of use, not just its quality, power on, in fact, the use of operations with the user also has great relevance. Most photographers are used after every use of the camera on the camera bag inside, or on the cupboard, took out the battery is not kept separately, this approach sounds fine, but not conducive to battery protection.

If more than 15 days do not usually use the camera, it is best to remove the battery from the camera inside the store alone, save the environment, it is best to dry and cool place, and do not store the battery together with metal objects.

According to our survey, you can buy in the market most digital cameras use lithium batteries, it is relatively easy to store. The only caveat is that if not used for long, preferably at intervals of 2 months to activate a battery, which is the charge and discharge time, this can effectively extend battery life.

As for the Ni-MH battery 5, the most annoying is the memory effect, this effect will reduce the overall battery capacity and the use of time, and as time goes on, less and less stored charge, the battery will consume the more you have to faster. Therefore, we should try to run out of power rechargeable, each charge must be sufficient to power the most full.

If you go out, the temporary use of alkaline batteries, we must remember that time out, or when unused for long periods, the battery is easy to Tangshui corrosion circuit, the digital camera battery could not escape the destiny scrapped.

For users of alkaline batteries, already mentioned above, remember the point is finished using the digital camera, remove the battery must remember to avoid the phenomenon of cell sap and damage the machine.

As for the use of rechargeable nickel-metal hydride batteries and lithium users. Battery charge is very particular about, bought back the batteries are generally very low or no power consumption, the first charge must be adequate. Lithium battery charging time is generally longer than 8 hours, while the Ni-MH battery charging time is generally more than 16 hours. To achieve best results, that is, the battery has reached its maximum capacity, generally more than 3 times repeated charge-discharge can. Battery with three times, the best opportunity to find a completely exhausted battery to charge again, try not to charge the battery when there are remnants of repeated charge, or will shorten battery life. After the battery charge is generally more heat, it is best to be cool and then into the camera battery.

But note that lithium batteries because there is no memory effect, so do not discharge, otherwise it will damage the digital camera battery structure, loss of battery life.

In addition, in order to avoid the loss of electricity, the use of nickel-metal hydride battery user, charging is completed, remove the battery, do not let the battery contact with the conductor while the positive and negative poles, for example, do not use your fingers touch both ends of the battery. The use of lithium users should try to keep the camera inside the battery positive and negative battery contacts clean, if necessary, wipe with a dry cloth and then gently wipe the battery.

Also note that, even if the user is to use lithium batteries, digital camera in a long time when not in use, should be completely discharged, remove the battery, stored in a dry, cool environment. The other thing to note is that both the nickel-hydrogen batteries or lithium batteries using the user, it is best not to have a charged battery on the purse, pocket, bag or container with metal objects, in order to prevent short-circuit .

Digital camera battery power Dafa:

1, to avoid frequent use of flash: If you are not professional photographers, then, except in the invisible fingers of the night, the light intensity of an ordinary day for the average digital camera, it is enough.

2, try to avoid unnecessary zoom operation: zoom the camera lens stretched it out a reduction, is power digital camera battery. You can move the pace of hyperactivity, with “artificial zoom” approach instead of “camera zoom” to save power.

3, Do not let the screen has been lit: If the case of small power, can turn off the LCD screen, use the viewfinder to adjust the picture composition, is for a digital camera, LCD should be considered the most power-hungry components, general digital camera, LCD screen after closing time can be used when the original length of about 3 times.

4, less shooting and video: minimize the use of multi-shot feature and video capture video, as the completion of these functions is to use the built-in buffer body to temporarily save the screen shot, the power consumption a lot.

5, should not frequently open, shut down: Many users know that the display stays lit is power, so in order to save electricity use to frequent opening and shutdown. In fact, frequently open, shut down the electricity wasted consumption than bright display even more, especially for larger diameter lenses, but also requires a substantial expansion of the camera, the switch is power. Most digital cameras have automatic shutdown option, this setting should not be set too short, otherwise easily lead to frequent opening and shut down. Of course, frequent artificial opening, shut down and should be avoided.

6, optical image stabilization not normally open: Optical image stabilization is by driving the lens or image sensor pack components, offset by the subject matter images and the relative motion between the sensor achieved. Either way the optical image stabilization, would result in no small power consumption, in particular some models can be anti-shake mode is set to “always on” so that power loss will be caused by the more powerful. To this end, we have a good scene in the light should turn off the optical image stabilization feature, you must use, should also be less “always on” mode.

___________________________________________________

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http://www.gobatteryonline.com/canon-nb-7l-digital-camera-battery-gose.html

2011-12-29

Portable electronic equipment battery technology

1, about the trickle charge, rapid charging and stable battery charging algorithm

According to the energy requirements of the final application, a battery may contain up to 4 lithium ion or lithium polymer battery core, its configuration will have a variety of change, at the same time with a mainstream power adapter: direct adapter, USB interface or car charger. Remove the core quantity, core configuration or power adapter type difference, the battery has the same charge characteristics. So they charge algorithm. Lithium ion and li-ion polymer battery best charging algorithm can divided into three phases: trickle charge, rapid charging and stable charge.

trickle charge. For depth discharge core to charge. When core voltage in less than about 2.8 V, use a constant 0.1 C of the current charging for it.

fast charging. Core voltage trickle charge more than the threshold, improve the charging current rapid charging. Fast charging current should be lower than 1.0 C.

stable voltage. In the fast charging process, once the core 4.2 V voltage, stable voltage phase began. This is through the minimum charge current or timer or of the two joint to interrupt charge. When the minimum current below about 0.07 C, can interrupt charge. The timer is to rely on a default to trigger the timer interrupt.

Advanced battery charger with additional security function normally. For example, if the core temperature exceeds the given window, usually 0 ℃-45 ℃, charge will be suspended.

Remove some very low-end equipment, now on the market/li-ion polymer lithium ion battery solutions are integrated with the outer components or, in accordance with the characteristics of the charging to charge, this is not just to get better effect charge, but also for safety.

lithium ion/polymer battery charge is an example of applications-double input 1.2 A lithium battery charger LTC4097

LTC4097 can be used to exchange adapter or USB power supply for single quarter/polymer lithium ion battery. Figure 1 for double input 1.2 A lithium battery charger LTC4097 schemes. It USES constant current/constant voltage algorithm charging, from exchange adapter power charge, programmable filling up to 1.2 electric current A, and with USB power can be as high as 1 A, at the same time, automatic detection in each input voltage whether there. This device also provide USB the current limit. Applications include PDA, MP3 players, digital camera, light portable medical and test equipment and big color cellular phone. The performance characteristics: no external micro controller charging termination; The input power automatic detection and choice; Through the resistance from the exchange of charging adapter input can be as high as 1.2 A programming charge current; The resistance of programmable USB charging current is up to 1 A; 100% or 20% USB charging current set; The input power output and existing bias NTC (VNTC) pin as a 120 mA drive ability; NTC thermistors input (NTC) pin for temperature qualified charged; Pre-settings battery voltage with floating plus or minus 0.6% accuracy; Thermal regulation maximize charge rate and free hot air LTC4097 can be used to exchange adapter or USB power supply for single quarter/polymer lithium ion battery. The use of constant current/constant voltage algorithm charging, from exchange adapter power charge, programmable filling up to 1.2 electric current A, and with USB power can be as high as 1 A, at the same time, automatic detection in each input voltage whether there. This device also provide USB the current limit. Applications include PDA, MP3 players, digital camera, light portable medical and test equipment and big color cellular phone.

2, lithium ion/polymer battery scheme

Lithium ion/polymer battery charge scheme for different number of core, core configuration, and power types are different. At present mainly have three main charging scheme: linear, Buck (step-down) switch and SEPIC (booster and step-down) switch.

2.1 linear scheme

When the input voltage in big with the charger with sufficient clearance of core after opening voltage, it is linear scheme, especially 1.0 C fast charging current than 1 A big too much. For example, MP3 players usually only one core, capacity from 700 to 1500 mAh differ, full charge voltage is open 4.2 V. MP3 player power is usually the AC/DC adapter or USB interface, the output is the rule of 5 V; At this time, the linear scheme is the most simple, most charger of the efficiency of the scheme. Figure 2 shows for lithium ion/polymer battery solution linear scheme, basic structure and linear voltage neat device.

linear scheme charger application examples-double input Li + charger and intelligent power source selector MAX8677A

MAX8677A is double input USB/AC adapter linear charger, built-in Smart Power Selector, used for rechargeable single quarter by Li + batteries portable devices. The charger integration of the battery and the external power source and load switch charging all the power switch, so that no external MOSFET. MAX8677A ideal used in portable devices, such as smart phones, PDA, portable media players, GPS navigation equipment, digital camera, and digital cameras.

MAX8677A can work in independent USB and the power input AC adapter or two input either one of the input. When connecting external power supply, intelligent power source selector allows the system not connect battery or can and depth discharge battery connection. Intelligent power source selector will automatically switch to the battery system load, use the system did not use the input power supply parts for battery, make full use of limited USB and adapter power supply input. All the needed electric current detection circuit, including the integration of the power switch, all integration in the piece. DC input current highest limit can be adjusted to 2 A and DC and USB input all can support 100 mA, 500 mA, and USB hung mode. Charge current can be adjusted to as high as 1.5 A, thus support wide range of battery capacitive. Other features include MAX8677A thermal regulation, over-voltage protection, charging status and fault output, power supply good surveillance, battery thermistors surveillance, and charging timer. MAX8677A using save a space, hot enhanced, 4 mm x 4 mm, 24 of the pins TQFN encapsulation, regulations, work in exceptional temperature range (40 ~ + 85 ℃).

2.2 Buck (step-down) switch scheme

When A 1.0 C of the charging current more than 1 A, or the input voltage of the core than with high voltage open many, Buck or step-down plan is A better choice. For example, based on the hard drive in the PMP, often use single core lithium ion battery, the full of open is 4.2 V voltage, capacity from 1200 to 2400 mAh range. And now PMP is usually use the car kit to charge, its output voltage in a 9 V to 16 between V. In the input voltage and battery voltage is the voltage difference between high (minimum 4.8 V) will make linear scheme lowers efficiency. This kind of low efficiency, plus more than 1.2 A 1 C fast charging electric current, have serious heat dissipation problems. To avoid this kind of situation, will the Buck scheme. Figure 3 for lithium ion/polymer battery charger scheme Buck diagram, basic structure with Buck (step-down) switching voltage regulators completely the same.

2.3 SEPIC (booster and step-down) switch scheme

In some use of three or four lithium ion/polymer core series equipments, charger of the input voltage is not always greater than the battery voltage. For example, laptop computers use 3 core lithium ion battery, full charge voltage is open 12.6 V (4.2 V x3), capacity is 1800 mAh to 3600 mAh from. Power supply input or output voltage is 1 6 V AC/DC adapter, or is car kit, the output voltage in a 9 V to 16 between V. Apparently, the linear and Buck solutions are not for this group of batteries. This is about to use SEPIC scheme, it can in the output voltage is higher than when the battery voltage, can be in the output voltage less than when the battery.

3, and power detection algorithm is proposed

Many portable products use voltage measurements to estimate the remaining battery power, but the battery voltage and surplus power relationship but will with the discharge rate, temperature and battery aging degree of change, make this kind of method can top 50% margin of error. The market for longer to use product demand unceasingly strengthens, so the system design personnel need more accurate solution. Use capacity check plan come to measure battery or consumption of electricity, will be in a wide range of application power to provide more accurate estimate of the battery power.

3.1 power detection algorithm is one of the examples of application, function complete list, double the battery portable battery application design

power detection principle. Good capacity check plan at least to have battery voltage, temperature and battery electric current, measuring method; A micro 9 a; And a set of and the verification of the punishment power detection algorithm is proposed. Bq2650x and bq27x00 is full capacity check program function, with a measuring voltage and temperature of the digital converter (ADC) and a measuring electric current and charging sensor the asp. These capacity check plan also has a microprocessor, is responsible for the implementation of the Texas instruments power detection algorithm is proposed. The algorithm can compensate the lithium ion battery life.low self-discharge, aging, the temperature and discharge rate, and other factors. Chip embedded microprocessor as host system processor save these calculation burden. Capacity check program can provide remaining power state information, bq27x00 series products also offer surplus can Run Time (Run Time to Empty) host may at any Time to capacity check plan these information query, then LED indicator light through or displays will inform the user battery. Capacity check meter is very easy to use, the system processor need only configuration 12 C or HDQ communication drive can.

The battery circuit description. Figure 4 (a) can be used for identification of IC functions with typical application circuit batteries. According to the use of IC testing program is different, the battery needs to have at least three to four outside the terminal.

VCC and BAT pins will even to the battery voltage, so that for, C power and the battery voltage measurement. The battery is connected a grounding resistance smaller detection resistors, let capacity check meter high impedance SRP and SRN input can monitor sensor resistance on both ends of the voltage. Through testing the current flows through a resistor can be used to judge the battery or release the amount of electricity. Designers choose detection resistance value must be considered when resistance on both ends of the voltage can't more than 100 mV, low resistance may be more hours in current errors. Circuit board layout must ensure that SRP and SRN to testing from as close as possible to the connection of the resistor sensor resistance end; In other words, they should be the Kelvin attachment.

HDQ pin need external and resistors, this resistance should be located the host or the main application, such capacity check plan to the battery and portable devices when sleep function enable connection broken. Advice and resistance choose 10 k Ω.

battery identification. A low cost WeiMao batteries are getting more and more serious, these cells may not contain OEM requirements of security protection circuit. So, genuine battery may contain figure 4 (a) shows the appraisal circuit. When to identify the battery, the host to contain IC (bq26150, the function is cyclic redundancy check (CRC)) issued the battery packs a ask value (challenge), the CRC will contain battery according to this inquiry value and, in the building of the IC in CRC polynomial calculation the CRC value. CRC is based on the host of command and IC secret in the query of the definition of the CRC polynomial completed, the host in CRC values calculated with the calculation result of well battery comparison to identify the appraisal success.

Once the battery through the appraisal, bq26150 will issue commands to ensure that the host and quantity test plan of material lines between normal communication. When the battery connection interruption or to connect, the whole the identification process will be repeated again.

double the battery application. Figure 4 (b) for use bq26500 support double the typical application of lithium ion battery circuit. In order to support more battery, and this circuit is adding a adjustable regulators. Capacity check millions of BAT pin and the bottom of a battery anode linked to complete the variable voltage measurement of the battery.

Host to be able to read capacity check plan of variable voltage measurement battery, to make sure the end of discharging threshold and charging terminate threshold. As for the remaining state power (RemainingStateofCapacity), do not need to read can use directly.

The above bq2650x and bq27x00 etc capacity check plan provides the battery manufacturer a simple to use options, this scheme L [just measuring battery voltage to be precise, so these capacity check plan can be applied to various battery framework, and can support the battery identification and double the battery application '

3.2 power detection algorithm is an example of applications another, can apply to all kinds of general voltmeter new IC.

Today's many manufacturers can provide a variety of voltmeter IC,, the user can choose the suitable function device, to optimize the product price. Use voltmeter measurement of storage battery parameters, the separate architecture allows users in the host custom power measurement algorithm within. Eliminating embedded processor battery cost. On this to Dallase semicconductor company called cases of DS2762 chip for typical analysis. A new separate voltmeter IC, its structure see chart 5 (a) below.

DS2762 application characteristics

DS2762 is a single quarter of lithium battery voltmeter and protection circuit, integrated into a tiny 2.46 mm x 2.74 mm inversion of packaging. Due to internal integration for power detection of high precise resistance, this device is very save a space. It is the small size and incomparable high level of integration, for mobile phone battery and other similar handheld products, such as PDA, etc, are all very ideal. Integrated protection circuit continuously monitoring the battery voltage, over voltage and flow fault (charging or discharge period). Different from the independent protection IC, DS2762 allow main processor surveillance/control protection FET conduction state, such, can DS2762 through the protection of the power system and the control circuit implementation. DS2762 can also charge a battery consumption has depth, when the battery voltage within three V, provide a limit of the charging current recovery path.

DS2762 accurate monitoring battery current, voltage and temperature, the dynamic range and resolution of common satisfy any mobile communication product testing standards. The measurement of current for internally generated when the integral, realize the power measurement. Through the real-time, continuous automatic disorders correct, the precision of power measurement can be increased. The built-in measuring resistance due to eliminate manufacturing process and temperature and cause resistance change, further improve the precision of the voltmeter. Important data stored in 32 bytes, can add the lock EEPROM; 16 bytes of SRAM are used to keep dynamic data. And DS2762 all communication all through the 1-Wire, more communication interface node, minimize the battery and the connection to the host. Its main features for; Single quarter of lithium battery protector; High precision current (power measurement), voltage and temperature measurement; Optional integrated 25 m Ω measuring resistance, each DS2762 after fine-tuning alone; 0 V battery restore charge; 32 bytes can lock EEPROM, 16 bytes SRAM, 64 a ROM;

1-Wire, node, digital communication interface; Support more battery power management, and through the protection system control FET power; Dormancy mode power supply current only 2 µ A (most); Work mode power supply current for 90 µ A (most); 2.46 mm x 2.74 mm inversion of packaging or 16 feet SSOP package led, and both are can choose with or without detection resistance; After has with e

2011-03-14

福島原子力発電所CNNコメント欄 MIT科学者見解2【東日本巨大地震

When the diesel generators were gone, the reactor operators switched to emergency battery power. The batteries were designed as one of the backups to the backups, to provide power for cooling the core for 8 hours. And they did.

Within the 8 hours, another power source had to be found and connected to the power plant. The power grid was down due to the earthquake. The diesel generators were destroyed by the tsunami. So mobile diesel generators were trucked in.

This is where things started to go seriously wrong. The external power generators could not be connected to the power plant (the plugs did not fit). So after the batteries ran out, the residual heat could not be carried away any more.

At this point the plant operators begin to follow emergency procedures that are in place for a “loss of cooling event”. It is again a step along the “Depth of Defense” lines. The power to the cooling systems should never have failed completely, but it did, so they “retreat” to the next line of defense. All of this, however shocking it seems to us, is part of the day-to-day training you go through as an operator, right through to managing a core meltdown.

It was at this stage that people started to talk about core meltdown. Because at the end of the day, if cooling cannot be restored, the core will eventually melt (after hours or days), and the last line of defense, the core catcher and third containment, would come into play.

But the goal at this stage was to manage the core while it was heating up, and ensure that the first containment (the Zircaloy tubes that contains the nuclear fuel), as well as the second containment (our pressure cooker) remain intact and operational for as long as possible, to give the engineers time to fix the cooling systems.

Because cooling the core is such a big deal, the reactor has a number of cooling systems, each in multiple versions (the reactor water cleanup system, the decay heat removal, the reactor core isolating cooling, the standby liquid cooling system, and the emergency core cooling system). Which one failed when or did not fail is not clear at this point in time.

So imagine our pressure cooker on the stove, heat on low, but on. The operators use whatever cooling system capacity they have to get rid of as much heat as possible, but the pressure starts building up. The priority now is to maintain integrity of the first containment (keep temperature of the fuel rods below 2200°C), as well as the second containment, the pressure cooker. In order to maintain integrity of the pressure cooker (the second containment), the pressure has to be released from time to time. Because the ability to do that in an emergency is so important, the reactor has 11 pressure release valves. The operators now started venting steam from time to time to control the pressure. The temperature at this stage was about 550°C.

This is when the reports about “radiation leakage” starting coming in. I believe I explained above why venting the steam is theoretically the same as releasing radiation into the environment, but why it was and is not dangerous. The radioactive nitrogen as well as the noble gases do not pose a threat to human health.

At some stage during this venting, the explosion occurred. The explosion took place outside of the third containment (our “last line of defense”), and the reactor building. Remember that the reactor building has no function in keeping the radioactivity contained. It is not entirely clear yet what has happened, but this is the likely scenario: The operators decided to vent the steam from the pressure vessel not directly into the environment, but into the space between the third containment and the reactor building (to give the radioactivity in the steam more time to subside). The problem is that at the high temperatures that the core had reached at this stage, water molecules can “disassociate” into oxygen and hydrogen – an explosive mixture. And it did explode, outside the third containment, damaging the reactor building around. It was that sort of explosion, but inside the pressure vessel (because it was badly designed and not managed properly by the operators) that lead to the explosion of Chernobyl. This was never a risk at Fukushima. The problem of hydrogen-oxygen formation is one of the biggies when you design a power plant (if you are not Soviet, that is), so the reactor is build and operated in a way it cannot happen inside the containment. It happened outside, which was not intended but a possible scenario and OK, because it did not pose a risk for the containment.

So the pressure was under control, as steam was vented. Now, if you keep boiling your pot, the problem is that the water level will keep falling and falling. The core is covered by several meters of water in order to allow for some time to pass (hours, days) before it gets exposed. Once the rods start to be exposed at the top, the exposed parts will reach the critical temperature of 2200 °C after about 45 minutes. This is when the first containment, the Zircaloy tube, would fail.

And this started to happen. The cooling could not be restored before there was some (very limited, but still) damage to the casing of some of the fuel. The nuclear material itself was still intact, but the surrounding Zircaloy shell had started melting. What happened now is that some of the byproducts of the uranium decay – radioactive Cesium and Iodine – started to mix with the steam. The big problem, uranium, was still under control, because the uranium oxide rods were good until 3000 °C. It is confirmed that a very small amount of Cesium and Iodine was measured in the steam that was released into the atmosphere.

It seems this was the “go signal” for a major plan B. The small amounts of Cesium that were measured told the operators that the first containment on one of the rods somewhere was about to give. The Plan A had been to restore one of the regular cooling systems to the core. Why that failed is unclear. One plausible explanation is that the tsunami also took away / polluted all the clean water needed for the regular cooling systems.

The water used in the cooling system is very clean, demineralized (like distilled) water. The reason to use pure water is the above mentioned activation by the neutrons from the Uranium: Pure water does not get activated much, so stays practically radioactive-free. Dirt or salt in the water will absorb the neutrons quicker, becoming more radioactive. This has no effect whatsoever on the core – it does not care what it is cooled by. But it makes life more difficult for the operators and mechanics when they have to deal with activated (i.e. slightly radioactive) water.

But Plan A had failed – cooling systems down or additional clean water unavailable – so Plan B came into effect. This is what it looks like happened:

In order to prevent a core meltdown, the operators started to use sea water to cool the core. I am not quite sure if they flooded our pressure cooker with it (the second containment), or if they flooded the third containment, immersing the pressure cooker. But that is not relevant for us.

The point is that the nuclear fuel has now been cooled down. Because the chain reaction has been stopped a long time ago, there is only very little residual heat being produced now. The large amount of cooling water that has been used is sufficient to take up that heat. Because it is a lot of water, the core does not produce sufficient heat any more to produce any significant pressure. Also, boric acid has been added to the seawater. Boric acid is “liquid control rod”. Whatever decay is still going on, the Boron will capture the neutrons and further speed up the cooling down of the core.

The plant came close to a core meltdown. Here is the worst-case scenario that was avoided: If the seawater could not have been used for treatment, the operators would have continued to vent the water steam to avoid pressure buildup. The third containment would then have been completely sealed to allow the core meltdown to happen without releasing radioactive material. After the meltdown, there would have been a waiting period for the intermediate radioactive materials to decay inside the reactor, and all radioactive particles to settle on a surface inside the containment. The cooling system would have been restored eventually, and the molten core cooled to a manageable temperature. The containment would have been cleaned up on the inside. Then a messy job of removing the molten core from the containment would have begun, packing the (now solid again) fuel bit by bit into transportation containers to be shipped to processing plants. Depending on the damage, the block of the plant would then either be repaired or dismantled.

Now, where does that leave us?

・The plant is safe now and will stay safe.

Japan is looking at an INES Level 4 Accident: Nuclear accident with local consequences. That is bad for the company that owns the plant, but not for anyone else.

・Some radiation was released when the pressure vessel was vented. All radioactive isotopes from the activated steam have gone (decayed). A very small amount of Cesium was released, as well as Iodine. If you were sitting on top of the plants’ chimney when they were venting, you should probably give up smoking to return to your former life expectancy. The Cesium and Iodine isotopes were carried out to the sea and will never be seen again.

・There was some limited damage to the first containment. That means that some amounts of radioactive Cesium and Iodine will also be released into the cooling water, but no Uranium or other nasty stuff (the Uranium oxide does not “dissolve” in the water). There are facilities for treating the cooling water inside the third containment. The radioactive Cesium and Iodine will be removed there and eventually stored as radioactive waste in terminal storage.

・The seawater used as cooling water will be activated to some degree. Because the control rods are fully inserted, the Uranium chain reaction is not happening. That means the “main” nuclear reaction is not happening, thus not contributing to the activation. The intermediate radioactive materials (Cesium and Iodine) are also almost gone at this stage, because the Uranium decay was stopped a long time ago. This further reduces the activation. The bottom line is that there will be some low level of activation of the seawater, which will also be removed by the treatment facilities.

・The seawater will then be replaced over time with the “normal” cooling water

・The reactor core will then be dismantled and transported to a processing facility, just like during a regular fuel change.

Fuel rods and the entire plant will be checked for potential damage. This will take about 4-5 years.

・The safety systems on all Japanese plants will be upgraded to withstand a 9.0 earthquake and tsunami (or worse)

・I believe the most significant problem will be a prolonged power shortage. About half of Japan’s nuclear reactors will probably have to be inspected, reducing the nation’s power generating capacity by 15%. This will probably be covered by running gas power plants that are usually only used for peak loads to cover some of the base load as well. That will increase your electricity bill, as well as lead to potential power shortages during peak demand, in Japan.

If you want to stay informed, please forget the usual media outlets and consult the following websites:

http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/RS_Battle_to_stabilise_earthquake_reactors_1203111.html

http://bravenewclimate.com/2011/03/12/japan-nuclear-earthquake/

http://ansnuclearcafe.org/2011/03/11/media-updates-on-nuclear-power-stations-in-japan/

福島原子力発電所CNNコメント欄 MIT科学者科学者見解1【東日本巨大地震

結論:大丈夫

MvK2010

I'm going to copy paste a full blog post of a research scientist at MIT here, who explains the situation at Fukushima much better than anyone else has, his message: no worries.

This post is by Dr Josef Oehmen, a research scientist at MIT, in Boston.

He is a PhD Scientist, whose father has extensive experience in Germany’s nuclear industry. I asked him to write this information to my family in Australia, who were being made sick with worry by the media reports coming from Japan. I am republishing it with his permission.

It is a few hours old, so if any information is out of date, blame me for the delay in getting it published.

This is his text in full and unedited. It is very long, so get comfy.

I am writing this text (Mar 12) to give you some peace of mind regarding some of the troubles in Japan, that is the safety of Japan’s nuclear reactors. Up front, the situation is serious, but under control. And this text is long! But you will know more about nuclear power plants after reading it than all journalists on this planet put together.

There was and will *not* be any significant release of radioactivity.

By “significant” I mean a level of radiation of more than what you would receive on – say – a long distance flight, or drinking a glass of beer that comes from certain areas with high levels of natural background radiation.

I have been reading every news release on the incident since the earthquake. There has not been one single (!) report that was accurate and free of errors (and part of that problem is also a weakness in the Japanese crisis communication). By “not free of errors” I do not refer to tendentious anti-nuclear journalism – that is quite normal these days. By “not free of errors” I mean blatant errors regarding physics and natural law, as well as gross misinterpretation of facts, due to an obvious lack of fundamental and basic understanding of the way nuclear reactors are build and operated. I have read a 3 page report on CNN where every single paragraph contained an error.

We will have to cover some fundamentals, before we get into what is going on.

Construction of the Fukushima nuclear power plants

The plants at Fukushima are so called Boiling Water Reactors, or BWR for short. Boiling Water Reactors are similar to a pressure cooker. The nuclear fuel heats water, the water boils and creates steam, the steam then drives turbines that create the electricity, and the steam is then cooled and condensed back to water, and the water send back to be heated by the nuclear fuel. The pressure cooker operates at about 250 °C.

The nuclear fuel is uranium oxide. Uranium oxide is a ceramic with a very high melting point of about 3000 °C. The fuel is manufactured in pellets (think little cylinders the size of Lego bricks). Those pieces are then put into a long tube made of Zircaloy with a melting point of 2200 °C, and sealed tight. The assembly is called a fuel rod. These fuel rods are then put together to form larger packages, and a number of these packages are then put into the reactor. All these packages together are referred to as “the core”.

The Zircaloy casing is the first containment. It separates the radioactive fuel from the rest of the world.

The core is then placed in the “pressure vessels”. That is the pressure cooker we talked about before. The pressure vessels is the second containment. This is one sturdy piece of a pot, designed to safely contain the core for temperatures several hundred °C. That covers the scenarios where cooling can be restored at some point.

The entire “hardware” of the nuclear reactor – the pressure vessel and all pipes, pumps, coolant (water) reserves, are then encased in the third containment. The third containment is a hermetically (air tight) sealed, very thick bubble of the strongest steel. The third containment is designed, built and tested for one single purpose: To contain, indefinitely, a complete core meltdown. For that purpose, a large and thick concrete basin is cast under the pressure vessel (the second containment), which is filled with graphite, all inside the third containment. This is the so-called “core catcher”. If the core melts and the pressure vessel bursts (and eventually melts), it will catch the molten fuel and everything else. It is built in such a way that the nuclear fuel will be spread out, so it can cool down.

This third containment is then surrounded by the reactor building. The reactor building is an outer shell that is supposed to keep the weather out, but nothing in. (this is the part that was damaged in the explosion, but more to that later).

Fundamentals of nuclear reactions

The uranium fuel generates heat by nuclear fission. Big uranium atoms are split into smaller atoms. That generates heat plus neutrons (one of the particles that forms an atom). When the neutron hits another uranium atom, that splits, generating more neutrons and so on. That is called the nuclear chain reaction.

Now, just packing a lot of fuel rods next to each other would quickly lead to overheating and after about 45 minutes to a melting of the fuel rods. It is worth mentioning at this point that the nuclear fuel in a reactor can *never* cause a nuclear explosion the type of a nuclear bomb. Building a nuclear bomb is actually quite difficult (ask Iran). In Chernobyl, the explosion was caused by excessive pressure buildup, hydrogen explosion and rupture of all containments, propelling molten core material into the environment (a “dirty bomb”). Why that did not and will not happen in Japan, further below.

In order to control the nuclear chain reaction, the reactor operators use so-called “moderator rods”. The moderator rods absorb the neutrons and kill the chain reaction instantaneously. A nuclear reactor is built in such a way, that when operating normally, you take out all the moderator rods. The coolant water then takes away the heat (and converts it into steam and electricity) at the same rate as the core produces it. And you have a lot of leeway around the standard operating point of 250°C.

The challenge is that after inserting the rods and stopping the chain reaction, the core still keeps producing heat. The uranium “stopped” the chain reaction. But a number of intermediate radioactive elements are created by the uranium during its fission process, most notably Cesium and Iodine isotopes, i.e. radioactive versions of these elements that will eventually split up into smaller atoms and not be radioactive anymore. Those elements keep decaying and producing heat. Because they are not regenerated any longer from the uranium (the uranium stopped decaying after the moderator rods were put in), they get less and less, and so the core cools down over a matter of days, until those intermediate radioactive elements are used up.

This residual heat is causing the headaches right now.

So the first “type” of radioactive material is the uranium in the fuel rods, plus the intermediate radioactive elements that the uranium splits into, also inside the fuel rod (Cesium and Iodine).

There is a second type of radioactive material created, outside the fuel rods. The big main difference up front: Those radioactive materials have a very short half-life, that means that they decay very fast and split into non-radioactive materials. By fast I mean seconds. So if these radioactive materials are released into the environment, yes, radioactivity was released, but no, it is not dangerous, at all. Why? By the time you spelled “R-A-D-I-O-N-U-C-L-I-D-E”, they will be harmless, because they will have split up into non radioactive elements. Those radioactive elements are N-16, the radioactive isotope (or version) of nitrogen (air). The others are noble gases such as Xenon. But where do they come from? When the uranium splits, it generates a neutron (see above). Most of these neutrons will hit other uranium atoms and keep the nuclear chain reaction going. But some will leave the fuel rod and hit the water molecules, or the air that is in the water. Then, a non-radioactive element can “capture” the neutron. It becomes radioactive. As described above, it will quickly (seconds) get rid again of the neutron to return to its former beautiful self.

This second “type” of radiation is very important when we talk about the radioactivity being released into the environment later on.

What happened at Fukushima

I will try to summarize the main facts. The earthquake that hit Japan was 7 times more powerful than the worst earthquake the nuclear power plant was built for (the Richter scale works logarithmically; the difference between the 8.2 that the plants were built for and the 8.9 that happened is 7 times, not 0.7). So the first hooray for Japanese engineering, everything held up.

When the earthquake hit with 8.9, the nuclear reactors all went into automatic shutdown. Within seconds after the earthquake started, the moderator rods had been inserted into the core and nuclear chain reaction of the uranium stopped. Now, the cooling system has to carry away the residual heat. The residual heat load is about 3% of the heat load under normal operating conditions.

The earthquake destroyed the external power supply of the nuclear reactor. That is one of the most serious accidents for a nuclear power plant, and accordingly, a “plant black out” receives a lot of attention when designing backup systems. The power is needed to keep the coolant pumps working. Since the power plant had been shut down, it cannot produce any electricity by itself any more.

Things were going well for an hour. One set of multiple sets of emergency Diesel power generators kicked in and provided the electricity that was needed. Then the Tsunami came, much bigger than people had expected when building the power plant (see above, factor 7). The tsunami took out all multiple sets of backup Diesel generators.

When designing a nuclear power plant, engineers follow a philosophy called “Defense of Depth”. That means that you first build everything to withstand the worst catastrophe you can imagine, and then design the plant in such a way that it can still handle one system failure (that you thought could never happen) after the other. A tsunami taking out all backup power in one swift strike is such a scenario. The last line of defense is putting everything into the third containment (see above), that will keep everything, whatever the mess, moderator rods in our out, core molten or not, inside the reactor.

http://anond.hatelabo.jp/20110314030613

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