「convenience」を含む日記 RSS

はてなキーワード: convenienceとは

2019-07-10

Terms of Use

I. INTRODUCTION

These Terms of Use and End User License Agreement (collectively, the “Agreement”) together with all the documents referred to in it constitute a legally binding agreement made between you as a natural person (“you”, “your” or “user”) and We (“we,” “us” or “our”), concerning your access to and use of the software application for mobile devices (the “App”).

All the documents that relate to the App are hereby expressly incorporated herein by reference.

Please read this Agreement carefully before you download, install or use the App.

It is important that you read and understand this Agreement as by downloading, installing or using the App you indicate that you have read, understood, agreed and accepted the Agreement which takes effect on the date on which you download, install or use the App. By using the App you agree to abide by this Agreement.

If you do not agree with (do not accept) this Agreement, or if you do not agree at least with one of the provisions of this Agreement, you are not authorized to, and you may not access, download, install or use the App and you must ly discontinue downloading, installing the App and remove (delete) the App from any mobile device in your possession or under your control.

II. CHANGES TO THIS AGREEMENT

We reserve the right, at our sole discretion, to make changes or modifications to this Agreement at any time and for any reason. We will keep you informed about any changes by updating this Agreement and you waive any right to receive specific notice of each such change. It is your responsibility to periodically review this Agreement to stay informed of updates. You will be subject to, and will be deemed to be aware of and to have accepted, the changes in any revised Agreement by your continued use of the App after the date such revised Agreement is posted.

III. RESTRICTIONS ON WHO CAN USE THE APP

In order to download, install, access or use the App, you must (a) be eighteen (18) years of age or older.

All users who are minors in the jurisdiction in which they reside (generally under the age of 18) must have the permission of, and be directly supervised by, their parent or guardian to use the App, so if you are between the ages of thirteen (13) and seventeen (17) years and you wish to use download, install, access or use the App, before doing so you must: (a) assure and confirm (if needed) that your parent or guardian have read and agree (get your parent or guardian’s consent) to this Agreement prior to you using the App; (b) have the power to enter a binding contract with us and not be barred from doing so under any applicable laws.

Parents and guardians must directly supervise any use of the App by minors.

Any person under the age of thirteen (13) years is not permitted to download, install, access or use the App.

You affirm that you are either more than eighteen 18 years of age, or an emancipated minor, or possess legal parental or guardian consent, and are fully able and competent to enter into the terms, conditions, obligations, affirmations, representations, and warranties set forth in this Agreement, and to abide by and comply with this Agreement.

IV. GENERAL TERMS

The App is a utility program designed to enhance your device experience. The App allows to scan any types of document to high quality PDF or JPEG; to save and store any scan copies of documents on your mobile devices; to share your scans via email; upload scanned documents to cloud services like box, Evernote or Google Drive (see the full performance list on the App’s page on itunes.apple.com). All documents shall be stored locally on your device and shall never be sent to any third-party unless you export them to other apps or devices by means of the App.

The App is intended only for your personal non-commercial use. You shall use the App only for the purposes, mentioned above.

V. PRIVACY POLICY

Your privacy is very important to us. Accordingly, we have developed the Privacy Policy in order for you to understand how we process, use and store information including personal data. Access to the App and use of the Services is subject to the Privacy Policy. By accessing the App and by continuing to use the Services, you are deemed to have accepted the Privacy Policy, and in particular, you are deemed to have acknowledged the ways we process your information as well as appropriate legal grounds for processing described in the Privacy Policy. We reserve the right to amend the Privacy Policy from time to time. If you disagree with any part of the Privacy Policy, you must immediately stop using the App and Services. Please read our Privacy Policy carefully.

VI. END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT

By using the App, you undertake to respect our intellectual rights (intellectual rights related to the App’s source code, UI/UX design, content material, copyright and trademarks, hereinafter referred to as the “Intellectual Property Rights”) as well as those owned by third parties.

As long as you keep using the App, we you a limited, non-exclusive, non-transferable non-sublicensable, non-assignable and revocable license to access and use the App pursuant to this Agreement on any Apple-branded products that you own or control except that the App may be accessed and used by other accounts associated with you via Family Sharing or volume purchasing (the “License”).

The source code, design and content, including information, photographs, illustrations, artwork and other graphic materials, sounds, music or video (hereinafter – the “works”) as well as names, logos and trademarks (hereinafter – “means of individualization”) within the App are protected by copyright laws and other relevant laws and/or international treaties, and belong to us and/or our partners and/or contracted third parties, as the case may be.

In the event of any third party claim that your possession and use of the App infringes that third party’s intellectual property rights, Apple will not be responsible for the investigation, defense, settlement and discharge of any such intellectual property infringement claim.

These works and means of individualization may not be copied, reproduced, retransmitted, distributed, disseminated, sold, published, broadcasted or circulated whether in whole or in part, unless expressly permitted by us and/or our partners and/or contracted third parties, as the case may be.

All rights, title and interest in and to the App and its content, works and means of individualization as well as its functionalities (1) are the exclusive property of We and/or our partners and/or contracted third parties, (2) are protected by the applicable international and national legal provisions, and (3) are under no circumstances transferred (assigned) to you in full or in part within the context of the license herewithin.

We will not hesitate to take legal action against any unauthorized use of our trademarks, names or symbols to protect and restore our rights. All rights not expressly ed herein are reserved. Other product and company names mentioned herein may also be the trademarks of their respective owners.

VII. PROHIBITED BEHAVIOUR

You agree not to use the App in any way that:

is unlawful, illegal or unauthorized;

is defamatory of any other person;

is obscene or offensive;

infringes any copyright, right or trademark of any other person;

advocates, promotes or assists any unlawful act such as (by way of example only) copyright infringement or computer misuse.

You shall not make the App available to any third parties. In addition, you shall not modify, translate into other languages, reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble or otherwise derivative works from the App or any documentation concerning the App.

You shall not transfer, lend, rent, lease, distribute the App, or use it for providing services to a third party, or any rights to the App or any documentation concerning the App to a third party.

Misuse of any trademarks or any other content displayed on the App is prohibited.

You shall not copy and/or duplicate and/or distribute and/or publish and/or use any content in the App, directly or indirectly, by way of a violation of our Intellectual Property Rights.

Moreover, you shall not make any attempts to use the App or part thereof for malicious intentions.

Also we are not responsible for the way you use the App.

It is clarified that we may adopt, against a user who violated the present Agreement, any legal measures at our disposal pursuant to the applicable laws.

All disputes arising from the usage of the App, shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America, and shall be submitted to the sole jurisdiction of the competent courts of New York, New York, the United States of America.

VIII. AVAILABILITY OF THE APP, SECURITY AND ACCURACY

In order to use the App, you are required to have a compatible mobile phone or tablet, and internet access. However, please note that we offer you widgets that save translations and allow you to access them later in offline mode.

The App is available for downloading and installing on handheld compatible mobile devices running Apple iOS Operating System 11.0 with minimum system requirements.

We do not warrant that the App will be compatible with all hardware and software which you may use.

We make no warranty that your access to the App will be uninterrupted, timely or error-free. Neither does Apple have an obligation whatsoever to furnish any maintenance and support services with respect to the App.

You acknowledge the App is provided via the internet and mobile networks and so the quality and availability of the App may be affected by factors outside our reasonable control.

The version of the App may be upgraded from time to time to add support for new functions and services.

We may change or update the App and anything described in it without noticing you. If the need arises, we may suspend access to the App, or close it indefinitely.

You also warrant that any information that you submit to us is true, accurate and complete, and you agree to keep it actual at all times.

You can discontinue using our Services at any time by choosing the relevant option in your iTunes Account Settings. If you decide not to use the App for any reason you should uninstall the App.

IX. CHARGES

The App is provided on a paid basis. You will need to pay a one-time fee of $14.99 in order to download the App. Once you download the App, you will get access to all its features.

Prices are in U.S. dollars, may vary in countries other than the U.S. and are subject to change without notice.

You may be charged by your communications service provider for downloading and/or accessing the App on your mobile phone or tablet device, so you should check the terms of agreement with your operator. This may include data roaming charges if you do this outside your home territory. All these charges are solely your responsibility. If you do not pay the bills related to your mobile phone or tablet device, then we assume that you have the permission from the person that does it before incurring any of these charges.

X. THIRD PARTY WEBSITES AND RESOURCES

The App may link you to other sites on the Internet and contracted third parties to provide you certain services. We have no control over and accept no responsibility for the content of any website or mobile application to which a link from the App exists (unless we are the provider of those linked websites or mobile applications). Such linked websites and mobile applications are providedas is” for your convenience only with no warranty, express or implied, for the information provided within them.

You acknowledge that you must comply with applicable third party terms of agreement when using the App. You are solely responsible for and bear all risks arising from your use of any third-party websites or resources.

If you have any queries, concerns or complaints about such third party websites or mobile applications (including, but not limited to, queries, concerns or complaints relating to products, orders for products, faulty products and refunds) you must direct them to the operator of that third party website or mobile application.

XI. DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES

YOU AGREE THAT YOUR USE OF THE APP AND ITS SERVICES SHALL BE AT YOUR SOLE RISK. THE SERVICES AND ALL THE MATERIALS, INFORMATION, SOFTWARE, CONTENT INTEGRATED IN THE APP ARE PROVIDEDAS IS” AND “AS AVAILABLE”. WE DO NOT MAKE ANY WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH REGARD TO THE MERCHANTABILITY, TECHNICAL COMPATIBILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OF ANY SERVICE, PRODUCTS OR MATERIAL PROVIDED PURSUANT TO THIS AGREEMENT. WE DO NOT WARRANT THAT THE FUNCTIONS CONTAINED ON OR THROUGH THE SERVICES WILL BE AVAILABLE, UNINTERRUPTED OR ERROR-FREE, THAT DEFECTS WILL BE CORRECTED, OR THAT THE SER このエントリーをはてなブックマークに追加ツイートシェア

2018-06-04

落ち込んだ時は自分を冷静に見つめなおそう!!

17歳の女子高生です!!

だっていいところと悪いところがある

自分の悪い面だけ見てたら落ち込んでしま

はてなにはそういう方が多い、よ!!

こう指摘すると脊髄反射で「そんなことないわい」とか

女子高生風情に何が分かる」とかいう人いますけど、

あなたを思っての指摘なのですから、素直に聞け、よ!!

で、どうすればいいのか、という話ですが

どうせ脊髄反射はてなの人たちに

自分の力で考える力はもはや残されていないので、

おすすめフレームワークを教えちゃうよ!!

4C分析

Customer value Cost Convenience Communication

これらを上手に使いこなせば、うまく人生生きていける、よ!!

2016-07-25

gitにおけるコミットログ/メッセージ例文集100

私はコミットログの書き方に悩む英語の苦手な人間である。実際、似たような人は世の中に結構いるようで、頻出単語を集計したりまとめたものは既にあって役に立つのだけれど、これらはあくま単語の話であり、具体的な文を構成する過程でやっぱり困る部分がかなりあった。

要するに、どういう時にどういう文が使われているのか、ということを示した例文集が欲しいのであるググると他にも「例文集があればいいのに」みたいな声はあるくせして、しかし誰も作ろうとしない。何なんだお前ら。それじゃ私が楽できないじゃないか

仕方なく自分でまとめたので、増田に垂れ流しておく。

はじめに

ここで挙げているコミットログは全て実際のコミットログから転載である。当然ながら各コミットログ著作権はそれぞれの書き手にある。いずれも各英文でググれば出てくるし、フェアユース範囲なら許してくれるだろうと考え名前プロジェクト名は割愛したが、ここにお詫びと感謝を述べておきたい。

抽出条件だが、参考にできそうなコミットログを多く含んでいそうなリポジトリGitHubSTARの多い方からざっと目で見て適当に選び、それぞれ最新コミットから5000件抽出した(あわせて前処理として、コミットログ冒頭のタグ情報は消去した)。

結果として対象としたリポジトリは以下の通り。

atomのみ5400件抽出していたため、計25400件のコミットログベースである。このうち、以下の条件に合致するものは参考例にすべきでないとして一律排除した。

こうして残った8540件を眺めながら、適当に切り出したのがこの用例集である個人的に「うーんこの」と思った表現も、散見される場合は載せた。

ということで、以下用例を羅列していく。

用例集

オプションフラグメニューを追加した
ファイルを追加した
メソッド機能を追加した
実装を別のものへ切り替えた
  • Use args.resourcePath instead of args.devResourcePath
  • Use arrays instead of while loops
  • Use auto instead of repeating explicit class names
  • Use weak pointer instead of manual bookkeeping
  • Change all uses of 'CInt' to 'Int32' in the SDK overlay
  • Change Integer#year to return a Fixnum instead of a Float to improve consistency
新しく何かに対応した/機能上の制約を取り払った
何かを使うようにした
より好ましい実装に改良した
何かを出来ない/しないようにした
  • Don't bail reading a metadata instance if swift_isaMask isn't available
  • Don't exit until the parent asks for an instance
  • Don't include Parent pointer in Nominal/BoundGeneric TypeRef uniquing
  • Don't use MatchesExtension for matching filters
  • Don't use ES6 class for AutoUpdater windows class
  • Don't use MatchesExtension for matching filters
  • Avoid `distinct` if a subquery has already materialized
  • Avoid infinite recursion when bad values are passed to tz aware fields
オブジェクトの内容や挙動確認やすくした
Assertを追加した
不要コードを除去した
コードを移動した
名前修正した
さなバグタイポ修正した, 警告を潰した
バグや好ましくない挙動修正した
テストコメントドキュメントを追加した
テストを削除した
テストコメント修正した
ドキュメント修正した

表現傾向とまとめ

以上の用例をふまえ、今回の参考ログ8540件から先頭の単語を出現回数で並べると次のようになった。

Add1149
Fix1014
Update584
Remove566
Use382
Don't260
Make228
Move178
Change103
Rename85
Improve76
Avoid68
Allow65
Implement60
Handle58

コミットログの基本形はもちろん動詞 + 名詞である名詞固有名詞複数形、不可算名詞が多いが、単数形場合冠詞は a が使われるか、あるいは省略される。the はまず使われない。

何かを追加した、という表現では非常に広く Add が使われる。メソッドからテストドキュメントに至るまで大概これでまかなえる。

一方、何かを修正した、という表現では広く Fix が使われる。「何か」は typocrash といった単語からメソッド名まで幅広い名詞を取るが、動名詞はあまり取らないのと、that節は取らないのでその点は注意が必要である

Fix は「何かが正しく動くようにした」ことを示し、正しい動作内容が何かを説明しない。そこで正しい動作内容に言及したい場合Make sure が使われる(こちらはthat節が取れる)。ただし Fix よりもニュアンス的に重い表現と思われ、Fix を使わず Make sure ばかり使うのはちょっとキモいのではないかと思う(Ensure はさらに重い表現っぽい)。

また、Fixtypo 以外でのドキュメント修正に対して使われることは稀である。対して Update はドキュメントコメントテストに使われ、本体コード修正に対しては使われない。本体コード修正にあわせてテスト更新したなら Update が使われる。ただ、テスト機構それ自体バグ修正したなら Fix である

無駄な何かを単純に除去したなら Remove を使う。これまでのもの(A)からのもの(B)に切り替えたのであれば Use B instead of A か Change A to B が使われる。新たに何かを利用するようにしたのであれば Use を、利用を取りやめた場合Don't use を使うことが多い。

何かをしないようにしたなら Don't を、内部実装効率化なら Make A + 比較級/形容詞Improve が使われる。

中身の変更を伴わない単なる名前の変更なら Rename A to B、コード機能論理上の場所を移動させたなら Move A to B である

この辺はリファクタリングと呼ばれる行為と思うが、Refactor というぼんやりした動詞はあまり使われず、このように変更内容の種類に応じて動詞が使い分けられている。

余談

コミットログにはWhyを書くべきだ、というのを何かで見かけたので because とか since を使ったログがどの程度あるかを調べたが、8540件のうち22件だった。基本的に短く、シンプルに、一目で意味が取れるログが好まれる傾向がある。例えば get rid of とか2件しか使われておらず、圧倒的に remove である

一方で、シンプル単語だけど開始単語としては使われないものもある。例えば次のような単語である。Expand(9)、Extend(8)、Print(5)、Optimize(5)、Publish(4)、Append(4)、Modify(3)、Manage(2)、Revise(2)、Dump(2)、Insert(2)、Migrate(2)、Enhance(1)、Edit(1) 。いずれもカッコ内は8540件に対する冒頭での登場回数である。結局、より一般的平易な単語で表せたり、Refactor同様に抽象度が高すぎると使われないのだろう。

おわりに

8000件もログを見たおかげで、迷いなくコミットメッセージが思いつくようになったのが個人的には今回書いてて最大の収穫だった。たぶんカンニングペーパーを作る行為それ自体効率のいい学習になるという話と同じだと思う。

このまとめも100以上用例を転載してあるので、それを読むだけでも多少は効果があるんじゃないかと思う。同じようにコミットログ書きたくねぇなぁ英語わっかんねぇなぁと思っている人にとって、何か役に立つところがあれば幸いである。

2015-11-29

4Pマーケティングミックスの要素

企業は以下の4Pを適切に操作して顧客にモノを売る。

いや、おかしいでしょ。なんでPlaceが流通になるの。なんとか頭文字を合わせようとしただけじゃないの。

で、さら顧客志向マーケティングミックスとして後に生まれたのが4C。

Consumer万能すぎでしょ。もっと狭い言葉を使おうよ。

サービスマーケティングミックスでは4Pに3つのPが加えられ、7Pになる。

Physical Evidenceが分かりにくすぎる。2単語になってるし。

さら共生マーケティングにおける4Cは上記の4Cとは違うとか、共生マーケティングの分野には7Cs COMPASS MODELなるものもあるとか。

https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%85%B1%E7%94%9F%E3%83%9E%E3%83%BC%E3%82%B1%E3%83%86%E3%82%A3%E3%83%B3%E3%82%B0

7Cs COMPASS MODELが何を言ってるか分かる人います

無理やりかっこよく頭文字を合わせてなんの得があるというのか。

こんなことしているから、ビジネス寄りの学問うさんくさい金稼ぎの手段だという偏見が抜けないんだ。

2014-04-28

戦後韓国慰安婦制度の使用」に関する海外研究

韓国訪問したオバマが「慰安婦はとんでもない人権侵害だ」と発言した。

それに対して安倍総理は「筆舌に尽くしがたい思いをされた慰安婦の方々のことを思うと本当に胸が痛む思い」だとし、

「20世紀は女性を始め、多くの人権侵害された世紀であった。人権侵害が起こらない21世紀にするため、日本も大きな貢献をしたい」と述べた。

これはちょっと意外な発言で、日韓メディア右派左派ともにちょっと戸惑った感じがしたように思える。

安部首相の真意がどういうものなのか、これからの行動を見ないと分からないが、

これは、慰安婦に対する人権侵害を認めつつ、「慰安婦制度をやっていたのは日本だけでなかった」という文脈を作ろうとしているのかなと思えた。

それはオバマの発言に対して、「米軍慰安婦はどうなんだ」「朴正煕韓国軍慰安婦管理はどうなんだ」という反応が多く見られたものを反映していると思う。

20世紀」という一般化といい、正直なかなかうまい手というか、慰安婦問題に対して右左をなだめる、これまでにないスタンスになるかもと思った。

そうなってくると、戦後韓国慰安婦制度本当にあったのかという話になってくる。あったなら、慰安婦像海外に建てるキャンペーンが別の意味を持ってくる。

別にあいつらもやってから、俺らは悪くない」という意図ではなく、

実際問題として、日本謝罪もし、アジア女性基金設立した一方で、韓国自身が実は同じ問題を抱えていたのに黙殺するという事態は、事実を明らかにする上でも好ましくないと思う。

まとめサイトではソースあいまいものも含めてよく目にするが、いくら内輪で盛り上がっても意味は皆無で

海外でどのようにどのように研究されているか、というのが重要になると思う。

残念ながら、メディアという点では海外では概して「20万人の韓国人日本性奴隷にされた」「日本はその歴史を否定しようとしている」という文脈で報じられているのがほとんどだ。

しかし、アカデミズムの分野では、ここ最近韓国自身の慰安婦制度に目を向けられているものも増えているように見受けられる。

おおよそ中立的立場であると見受けられるC.Sarah Sohという研究者2009年出版された"The Comfort Women"という本は海外でも評判が高いようなので、色々調べようと思った。

http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/6068978-the-comfort-women

検索すると、Google Readersで一部内容が見ることができ、その部分にちょうど韓国慰安婦制度について記述しているところがあったので、メモ代わりに引用しておく。

もちろん、この本は、日本慰安婦制度、および人権侵害にも厳しい目を向けているが、

この部分の結論としては、韓国慰安婦生存者を日本の抵抗のシンボルとして英雄扱いする一方で、韓国自身の慰安婦制度含む性の人権侵害には目を向けてこなかったということを言っている。

韓国戦後慰安婦制度を使用してきた」という事実は、単なるネット右翼デマではなく、海外研究者にも裏付けられている事実であり、もっと注目されるべきではないかなと思う。

"The Comfort Women: Sexual Violence and Postcolonial Memory in Korea and Japan" by C.Sarah Soh

(p:211~)

After its liberation from Japanese rule in August 1945,the Korean Peninsula was divided into two: Soviet troops occupied the northern half and the US military the southern half. The ongoing US military presence in South Korea led to the formation and maintenance of “Camp towns” (kijich’on, in Korean) around the military bases, a development that has had a striking social impact on Korean communities. Kijich’on (literally, base or camp [kiji] village [ch’on]) refers to the civilian world of commercial establishments and residential buildings that have sprung up around the US military bases and cater to the needs of the American GI’s. It is “ a place where Koreans and Americans- mostly male military personnel- meet in an economic and emotional marriage of convenience”. As of the end of 1996, 37,000 American troops supported the economies of ninety-six kijich’on. The estimated number of kijich’on prostitutes over the first four decades of the American presence ranges between 250,000 and 300,000.

(中略)

The kijich'on sex trade consolidated and expanded during the second phase, which began with the Korean War. In her testimony, Pak Sun-i who had laboured at three different comfort startions in Japan 1944 to the end of the war, recalled:

"At twenty-seven years of age, I was having a hard time making ends meet in Tongduch'on (the largest kijich'on just outside Seoul). I ended up cohabiting with a staff sergeant of the USArmy for about two years... One of my friends from the days at a comfort station in Japan also worked as yang-gonju, but she passed away."

An American veteran who served in Korea in the 1950s after the end of the Korean War recounted that on Friday nights half-ton trucks would bring into the base a few hundred women to stay the night or the weekend with the soldiers. In 1958, five years after the armistice, the majority of about 300,000 prostitutes in Korea reportedly served American soldiers. Some of them, like their earlier Japanese counterparts(RAA), married and emigrated to the United States as wives of servicemen.

The fact that the Korean military also availed themselves of the "special comfort unit" during the Korean War has received little public attention even after the Korean women's movement in support of the "comfort women" began in the 1990s. Only piecemeal anecdotal materials on it had come to light from memoirs written by retired generals and generals and the testimony of soldiers who fought in the war.

(中略)

Characterizing the Korean military comfort system as an "unfortunate offspring" of the Japanese colonial legacy, Kim Kwi-ok called for victimized women, civic organizations, and scholars to come together and confront the unresolved issues of this historical injustice. The media reports of Kim's work, however, have generated little response. There has been no public outcry regarding the Korean military's use of "comfort women" during the Korean War or its violation of women's human rights. Korean silence over these issues is reminiscent of earlier societal indifference toward survivors of imperial Japan's comfort system, It mirrors the reticence of many Japanese to come to terms with the history of their country's wartime comfort system. As in the case of Japan, many in Korea, including retired military leaders, apparently regard the women's sexual labour simply as the performance of gendered customary sex labour in order to meet the needs of fighting men. It is noteworthy that military authorities have acknowledged that the system of special comfort units contradicts the national policy of banning licensed prostitution. Nonetheless, they have insisted that the special units were created to fulfill an important strategic end.

(中略)

(日本人韓国への売春ツアー、及び韓国人東南アジアへの売春ツアーは看過されてきたが、という話の後)

However, when it comes to the issue of Japan's wartime "comfort women" system, which has been redefined by the international community as a prominent case of violence against women in armed conflict, no social critic or public intellectual in Korea would dare to take the customary masculinist position that such a system benefits the economy or promotes national security. This is because the comfort women issue has been redefiend as military sexual slavery and a war crime by the international community owing largely to women's collaborative movement for redress in Japan and Korea.

Still, little critical public discourse has occurred on the legacies of that historical institution or the social structural dimension of Korea'S comfort women tragedy. Few are willing to consider the unsavoury fact that, accustomed to indigenous public institutions that have granted customary sex rights to men, and licensed by the colonial government, many Koreans did not hesitate to collaborate in recruiting and runing comfort stations by trafficking in girls and young women. Rather than deal with the messy and unpleasant complications of the historical record, Korean public discourse has simplistically elevated the survivors to heroic symbols of national suffering under Japanese colonialism and its imperialist war of aggression.

By contrast, Japan, which is unavoidably seen as the perpetrator nation, has been in turmoil over contested representations of the comfort women phenomenon and its responsibility in the matter. Meanwhile, the international - as well as domestic - trade in public sex prospers in capitalist economies of Japan and Korea despite endless incidents of criminal abuse of women so employed by both foreigners and compatriots. The social historical legacies of masculinist sexual culture and political economic realities in the two countries continue to help construct women'S sexual labour as stigmatized yet customary care labour for masculine "need".

2012-01-05

Types of digital cameras

Digital cameras are made in a wide range of sizes, prices and capabilities. The majority are camera phones, operated as a mobile application through the cellphone menu. Professional photographers and many amateurs use larger, more expensive digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR) for their greater versatility. Between these extremes lie digital compact cameras and bridge digital cameras that "bridge" the gap between amateur and professional cameras. Specialized cameras including multispectral imaging equipment and astrographs continue to serve the scientific, military, medical and other special purposes for which digital photography was invented.

[edit]Compact digital cameras

Subcompact with lens assembly retracted

Compact cameras are designed to be tiny and portable and are particularly suitable for casual and "snapshot" uses. Hence, they are also called point-and-shoot cameras. The smallest, generally less than 20 mm thick, are described as subcompacts or "ultra-compacts" and some are nearly credit card size.[2]

Most, apart from ruggedized or water-resistant models, incorporate a retractable lens assembly allowing a thin camera to have a moderately long focal length and thus fully exploit an image sensor larger than that on a camera phone, and a mechanized lens cap to cover the lens when retracted. The retracted and capped lens is protected from keys, coins and other hard objects, thus making it a thin, pocketable package. Subcompacts commonly have one lug and a short wrist strap which aids extraction from a pocket, while thicker compacts may have two lugs for attaching a neck strap.

Compact cameras are usually designed to be easy to use, sacrificing advanced features and picture quality for compactness and simplicity; images can usually only be stored using lossy compression (JPEG). Most have a built-in flash usually of low power, sufficient for nearby subjects. Live preview is almost always used to frame the photo. Most have limited motion picture capability. Compacts often have macro capability and zoom lenses but the zoom range is usually less than for bridge and DSLR cameras. Generally a contrast-detect autofocus system, using the image data from the live preview feed of the main imager, focuses the lens.

Typically, these cameras incorporate a nearly silent leaf shutter into their lenses.

For lower cost and smaller size, these cameras typically use image sensors with a diagonal of approximately 6 mm, corresponding to a crop factor around 6. This gives them weaker low-light performance, greater depth of field, generally closer focusing ability, and smaller components than cameras using larger sensors.

Starting in 2011, some compact digital cameras can take 3D still photos. These 3D compact stereo cameras can capture 3D panoramic photos for play back on a 3D TV.[3] Some of these are rugged and waterproof, and some have GPS, compass, barometer and altimeter. [4]

[edit]Bridge cameras

Sony DSC-H2

Main article: Bridge camera

Bridge are higher-end digital cameras that physically and ergonomically resemble DSLRs and share with them some advanced features, but share with compacts the use of a fixed lens and a small sensor. Like compacts, most use live preview to frame the image. Their autofocus uses the same contrast-detect mechanism, but many bridge cameras have a manual focus mode, in some cases using a separate focus ring, for greater control. They originally "bridged" the gap between affordable point-and-shoot cameras and the then unaffordable earlier digital SLRs.

Due to the combination of big physical size but a small sensor, many of these cameras have very highly specified lenses with large zoom range and fast aperture, partially compensating for the inability to change lenses. On some, the lens qualifies as superzoom. To compensate for the lesser sensitivity of their small sensors, these cameras almost always include an image stabilization system to enable longer handheld exposures.

These cameras are sometimes marketed as and confused with digital SLR cameras since the appearance is similar. Bridge cameras lack the reflex viewing system of DSLRs, are usually fitted with fixed (non-interchangeable) lenses (although some have a lens thread to attach accessory wide-angle or telephoto converters), and can usually take movies with sound. The scene is composed by viewing either the liquid crystal display or the electronic viewfinder (EVF). Most have a longer shutter lag than a true dSLR, but they are capable of good image quality (with sufficient light) while being more compact and lighter than DSLRs. High-end models of this type have comparable resolutions to low and mid-range DSLRs. Many of these cameras can store images in a Raw image format, or processed and JPEG compressed, or both. The majority have a built-in flash similar to those found in DSLRs.

In bright sun, the quality difference between a good compact camera and a digital SLR is minimal but bridgecams are more portable, cost less and have a similar zoom ability to dSLR. Thus a Bridge camera may better suit outdoor daytime activities, except when seeking professional-quality photos.[5]

In low light conditions and/or at ISO equivalents above 800, most bridge cameras (or megazooms) lack in image quality when compared to even entry level DSLRs. However, they do have one major advantage: their much larger depth of field due to the small sensor as compared to a DSLR, allowing larger apertures with shorter exposure times.

A 3D Photo Mode was introduced in 2011, whereby the camera automatically takes a second image from a slightly different perspective and provides a standard .MPO file for stereo display. [6]

[edit]Mirrorless interchangeable-lens camera

Main article: Mirrorless interchangeable-lens camera

In late 2008, a new type of camera emerged, combining the larger sensors and interchangeable lenses of DSLRs with the live-preview viewing system of compact cameras, either through an electronic viewfinder or on the rear LCD. These are simpler and more compact than DSLRs due to the removal of the mirror box, and typically emulate the handling and ergonomics of either DSLRs or compacts. The system is used by Micro Four Thirds, borrowing components from the Four Thirds DSLR system.

[edit]Digital single lens reflex cameras

Cutaway of an Olympus E-30 DSLR

Main article: Digital single-lens reflex camera

Digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs) are digital cameras based on film single-lens reflex cameras (SLRs). They take their name from their unique viewing system, in which a mirror reflects light from the lens through a separate optical viewfinder. At the moment of exposure the mirror flips out of the way, making a distinctive "clack" sound and allowing light to fall on the imager.

Since no light reaches the imager during framing, autofocus is accomplished using specialized sensors in the mirror box itself. Most 21st century DSLRs also have a "live view" mode that emulates the live preview system of compact cameras, when selected.

These cameras have much larger sensors than the other types, typically 18 mm to 36 mm on the diagonal (crop factor 2, 1.6, or 1). This gives them superior low-light performance, less depth of field at a given aperture, and a larger size.

They make use of interchangeable lenses; each major DSLR manufacturer also sells a line of lenses specifically intended to be used on their cameras. This allows the user to select a lens designed for the application at hand: wide-angle, telephoto, low-light, etc. So each lens does not require its own shutter, DSLRs use a focal-plane shutter in front of the imager, behind the mirror.

[edit]Digital rangefinders

Main article: Rangefinder camera#Digital rangefinder

A rangefinder is a user-operated optical mechanism to measure subject distance once widely used on film cameras. Most digital cameras measure subject distance automatically using electro-optical techniques, but it is not customary to say that they have a rangefinder.

[edit]Line-scan camera systems

A line-scan camera is a camera device containing a line-scan image sensor chip, and a focusing mechanism. These cameras are almost solely used in industrial settings to capture an image of a constant stream of moving material. Unlike video cameras, line-scan cameras use a single row of pixel sensors, instead of a matrix of them. Data coming from the line-scan camera has a frequency, where the camera scans a line, waits, and repeats. The data coming from the line-scan camera is commonly processed by a computer, to collect the one-dimensional line data and to create a two-dimensional image. The collected two-dimensional image data is then processed by image-processing methods for industrial purposes.

Further information: Rotating line camera

[edit]Integration

Many devices include digital cameras built into or integrated into them. For example, mobile phones often include digital cameras; those that do are known as camera phones. Other small electronic devices (especially those used for communication) such as PDAs, laptops and BlackBerry devices often contain an integral digital camera, and most 21st century camcorders can also make still pictures.

Due to the limited storage capacity and general emphasis on convenience rather than image quality, almost all these integrated or converged devices store images in the lossy but compact JPEG file format.

Mobile phones incorporating digital cameras were introduced in Japan in 2001 by J-Phone. In 2003 camera phones outsold stand-alone digital cameras, and in 2006 they outsold all film-based cameras and digital cameras combined. These camera phones reached a billion devices sold in only five years, and by 2007 more than half of the installed base of all mobile phones were camera phones. Sales of separate cameras peaked in 2008. [7]

Integrated cameras tend to be at the very lowest end of the scale of digital cameras in technical specifications, such as resolution, optical quality, and ability to use accessories. With rapid development, however, the gap between mainstream compact digital cameras and camera phones is closing, and high-end camera phones are competitive with low-end stand-alone digital cameras of the same generation.

[edit]Waterproof

A Canon WP-1 waterproof 35 mm film camera

Waterproof digital cameras are digital cameras that can make pictures underwater. Waterproof housings have long been made but they cost almost as the cameras. Many waterproof digital cameras are shockproof and resistant to low temperatures; one of them is Canon PowerShot D10, one of the first underwater digital cameras.

These cameras become very popular during the holiday season, because many people want to save the best moments from their holidays at the seaside. Waterproof watches and mobile phones were produced earlier. Most makers of digital cameras also produce waterproof ones and every year they launch at least one new model, for example Sony, Olympus, Canon, Fuji.

Healthways Mako Shark, an early waterproof camera,[8] was launched in 1958 and cost around 25 dollars. It was a huge camera and pictures were black and white.

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