はてブみていて心配になったので脇から元記事に補足。まず用語として「伝達」はconvectionの直訳だろう。本来はelectrnic conductivityがただのconductivityになったようにheat convectionがただのconvectionになってしまって向こうの人の語感じゃ「伝達＝対流」になってるみたい。（そっち方面専門の知人の話による）少なくともbelt conveyorは本来の意味を保って使われてるね。
日本でも浸透してきてると聞くが、アメリカでも俺の周りだとみんな普通に加入してる感じ。昔のテレビのよう。最近Netflixで何を観た、あれ面白いよね、という会話がもはや日常。逆にAmazon PrimeとかHuluについて同じような会話は俺の周りでは聞かない。テラスハウスとかコンマリとかも周りの人は見てて、日本では本当に男女の恋愛はあんな感じなのかとかの質問を良くされる。俺はドキュメンタリーをよく見る。最近では「Abstract」「Rotten」「Salt Fat Acid Heat」とかが面白かった。「Roma」が良かったと複数の友人から勧められたので今度見る。
|むらびと||Villager||Villager Comes to Town!||-||-||-|
|ロックマン||Mega Man||Mega Man Joins the Battle!||-||-||-|
|Wii Fit トレーナ||Wii Fit Trainer||Wii Fit Trainer Weighs In!||weigh in||計量する、割って入る、仲裁に入る||計量する→体重測定？|
|ロゼッタ＆チコ||Rosalina ＆ Luma||Rosalina ＆ Luma launch into battle!||launch into||始める、門出する||Launch:（ロケットなどを）打ち上げる→ほうき星の天文台|
|リトルマック||Little Mac||Little Mac Punches In!||punch in||打ち込む||ボクサー|
|リザードン||Charizard||Charizard Fires it Up!||fire up||火をつける、始動させる、駆り立てる||ほのおタイプポケモン|
|ゲッコウガ||Greninja||Greninja Makes A Splash!||make a splash||音を立てる、あっと言わせる、水しぶきを上げる||みずタイプポケモン|
|パックマン||Pac-Man||Pac-Man Hungers for Battle!||hunger for||切望する||Hunger←ゲーム性から|
|ルキナ||Lucina||Lucina Wakes Her Blade?!||-||-||ファイアーエンブレム 覚醒(Awakening)とかけてる？|
|ルフレ||Robin||Robin Brings the Thunder!||-||-||サンダーソードという武器を使う|
|シュルク||Shulk||Shulk Foresees a Fight!||foresee||見越す、予見する||未来視という能力がある|
|クッパJr.||Bowser Jr.||Bowser Jr. Clowns the Competition!||clown||ふざける||いたずら|
|ダックハント||Duck Hunt||Duck Hunt Takes Aim!||take aim||狙いを定める||カモを狙い撃つゲーム性から|
|ミュウツー||Mewtwo||Mewtwo Strikes Back!||strike back||殴り返す、反撃する||ミュウツーの逆襲|
|リュカ||Lucas||Lucas Comes Out of Nowhere!||come out of nowhere||突然やってくる||リュカはノーウェア(Nowhere)島に住んでいる|
|ロイ||Roy||Roy Seals the Deal!||seal the deal||契約を結ぶ、取引を固める||ロイは封印(seal)の剣の主人公|
|リュウ||Ryu||Here Comes A New Challenger! Ryu||-||-||ストリートファイターの乱入時のメッセージ|
|クラウド||Cloud||Cloud Storms into Battle!||storm into||押し入る、突入する||Storm Clouds（凶兆、悪いことが起こる前兆）|
|カムイ||Corrin||Corrin Chooses to Smash!||choose to do||決める||ファイアーエンブレムifの「運命の分岐点」で選択肢を選ぶから|
|ベヨネッタ||Bayonetta||Bayonetta Gets Wicked!||-||-||-|
|リドリー||Ridley||Ridley Hits the Big Time!||hit the big time||成功する、一流になる、大当たりする||Ridley is too big.というネットミーム|
|シモン||Simon||Simon Lashes Out!||lash out||暴力で攻撃する、食って掛かる||Lash（ムチ）→メインウェポンがムチ|
|リヒター||Richter||Richter Crosses Over!||cross over||クロスオーバーする、枠を超える||Cross→横必殺技がクロス（十字架のブーメラン）|
|クロム||Chrom||Chrom Joins the Battle!||-||-||-|
|ダークサムス||Dark Samus||Dark Samus Joins the Battle!||-||-||-|
|キングクルール||King K. Rool||King K. Rool Comes Aboard!||come aboard||（船に）乗り込む、参加する||船に乗り込む→キャプテン|
|しずえ||Isabelle||Isabelle Turns Over A New Leaf!||turn over a new leaf||改心する、心機一転する||「とびだせ どうぶつの森」の英語タイトルが「Animal Crossing: New Leaf」|
|ケン||Ken||Ken Turns Up the Heat!||turn up the heat||温度をあげる、強火にする、勢いを増す||ケンはリュウと違い、昇龍拳で火を噴く|
|ガオガエン||Incineroar||Incineroar Enters the Ring!||enter the ring||リングに入る||プロレス技を使うキャラクターなので|
|パックンフラワー||Piranha Plant||Piranha Plant Pipes Up!||pipe up||しゃべり（歌い）始める、甲高い声で話す、汲み上げる||土管|
|バンジョー＆カズーイ||Banjo-Kazooie||Banjo-Kazooie are Raring to Go!||raring to go||今か今かと待ち切れない、～したくてしかたがない||開発元がRare社|
|勇者||Hero||The Hero Draws Near!||draw near||そこに向かって動く|
Nissan Rear Door Alert
Toxins are everywhere. Car exhaust, secondhand smoke, flame retardants, plastic packaging, heavy metals, pesticides, BPA-coated receipts… Unless you’re living in virgin forest, you’re going to come into contact with some less-than-optimal chemicals pretty much every day.
That’s definitely no reason to panic. In fact, small doses of toxins may be good for you because of a phenomenon called hormesis – mild stress makes your cells work more efficiently. However, your body can have trouble clearing certain toxins. You eliminate most of the bisphenol-A (BPA) and other plastics you ingest, but a small percentage hides away in your fat cells, messing with your hormones and accumulating over time. It’s the same deal with several mold toxins, heavy metals like lead, nickel, cadmium, mercury, and aluminum, and with certain pharmaceuticals and drugs like THC.
A good detox protocol can help you eliminate these more stubborn toxins. The trouble is that many common detoxes don’t work. Juice and water cleanses, for example, are often actually counterproductive because they deprive your body of essential nutrients it needs to function. That said, there are a few genuine ways to detox.
Because so many toxins stay in your fat cells, one way to detox is through lipolysis – breaking down your fat cells and releasing the hard-to-reach toxins stored within them. Lipolysis is especially effective when you combine it with liver and kidney support or adsorbents that can suck up the released toxins. This article focuses on all of the above. Let’s start with saunas.
1) Sauna sessions
Sweating does more than cool you off. It also helps you get rid of both heavy metals and xenobiotics – foreign compounds like plastics and petrochemicals – in small but significant amounts. A 2012 review of 50 studies found that sweating removes lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury, especially in people with high heavy metal toxicity . Another study put participants in both traditional and infrared saunas and found similar results . Sweating also eliminates hormone-disrupting BPA, which accumulates in your fat cells .
There’s debate about the best kind of sauna for detoxification. A couple studies have shown that infrared saunas are the most effective for detoxing, but the research was funded by infrared sauna companies, so the results are questionable. Both traditional and infrared saunas are effective for detoxing . That said, I prefer infrared saunas for a few reasons:
They don’t get as hot. Traditional saunas heat the air around you, while infrared light penetrates and heats your tissue directly. You sweat in an infrared sauna at around 130-150 degrees instead of at 180-200 degrees, so you can stay in for longer without feeling like you’re going to pass out. I’ve done 2-hour infrared sauna sessions (drinking salt water the whole time to replenish electrolytes and fluids, of course).
They’re easier on your electric bill. Again, infrared saunas require less energy, especially if you get a sauna that reflects infrared light back on you. This one, for example, costs about 15 cents an hour to run.
I personally use a Sunlighten infrared sauna and love it. If you don’t want to buy an infrared sauna and there isn’t one around you, a standard sauna will work perfectly well . There’s probably one in your local gym.
Keep in mind that sweating pulls electrolytes and trace minerals from your body, so it’s important to drink a lot of fluids and get plenty of salt (preferably Himalayan pink salt or another mineral-rich natural salt) if you’re going to use a sauna to detox .
Exercise is another way to flush toxins from your body, and through more than just making you sweat. Exercise increases lipolysis (the breakdown of fat tissue), releasing toxins stored in your fat tissue. Studies show that people who exercise and lose body fat end up with higher levels of circulating hormone disruptors . Increasing lipolysis through diet does the same thing .
Mobilizing toxins isn’t necessarily a good thing, particularly if you’re unequipped to get rid of them. You want to be sure you’re getting rid of toxins, not just moving them to a different part of your body. Working out addresses the issue to a degree: it improves circulation, providing more oxygen to your liver and kidneys so they can better filter out toxins. You can also give your system even more support and pull out bad stuff with the next two detox tools: activated charcoal and glutathione.
Activated charcoal is a form of carbon that has massive surface area and a strong negative charge. It’s been around for thousands of years and it’s still used in emergency rooms today to treat poisoning.
Charcoal binds to chemicals whose molecules have positive charges, including aflatoxin and other polar mycotoxins , BPA , and common pesticides . Once the chemicals attach to the charcoal you can pass them normally (i.e. poop them out).
Charcoal can bind to the good stuff, too, so I don’t recommend taking it within an hour of other supplements. Try taking a couple charcoal pills along with exercise or have a sauna session. They should adsorb many of the toxins you release into your gut and GI tract.
Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant that protects you from heavy metal damage, according to studies in both human and rat cells [9,10,11,12]. Glutathione also supports liver enzymes that break down mold toxins and heavy metals. Your digestion will destroy normal glutathione, so opt for a liposomal glutathione supplement that makes it through your stomach. You can also supplement with N-acetylcysteine and alpha-lipoic acid, which your body can use to build glutathione on its own . If you have severe heavy metal or mycotoxin poisoning, talk to a naturopath or functional medicine doctor about intravenous (IV) glutathione. It’s expensive and less convenient than an oral supplement, but it works very well.
We’ve talked about how heat and exercise can increase fat burning to detox your fat cells. It turns out cold can do the same. Cryochambers are gaining popularity with professional athletes and other high performers for their ability to quell inflammation. It turns out they can help you burn fat – and release the toxins stored in it – as well.
A cryochamber uses liquid nitrogen to supercool your body, stimulating mitochondrial function and decreasing inflammation. Intense cold also destroys fat cells, which has led to cryolipolysis therapy as a way to slim down [14,15]. You can use it to detox, too.
Quick disclaimer: I haven’t found studies specifically looking at ketosis and toxin load, so you may want to take this section with a grain of (Himalayan) salt. That said, ketosis is a very effective way to induce lipolysis, particularly if you’re fasting.
When you’re in ketosis and you haven’t eaten recently, your body breaks down your fat stores into free fatty acids, which it then converts to ketones for fuel. That means that, in theory, you should be able to supercharge your detox (and fat loss) by dropping into nutritional ketosis.
The Bulletproof Diet puts you into mild ketosis, which curbs your hunger and sharpens your brain without forcing you to forego carbs entirely. If you want to try nutritional ketosis for detoxing, you’ll have to modify the Bulletproof Diet slightly. Skip carb reefed days for a couple weeks and limit carbs to ~30-50 grams per day. You can use keto urine strips or – even better – a blood ketone meter to test and make sure you’re becoming fat-adapted. Once your levels read around 1.5 mg/dL, you’re comfortably in nutritional ketosis. At that point, fasting will attack your fat stores and mobilize toxins, which you can mop up with activated charcoal or sweat out (or both).
Chelation therapy is the strongest way to detox heavy metals. It can also be dangerous, so many doctors don’t recommend it unless you have moderate to severe heavy metal poisoning. Chelation therapy uses compounds called chelators that form strong bonds with heavy metals, leaving them unable to further poison your body. You can then pass them normally. Chelation therapy is very effective for removing lead, mercury, aluminum, arsenic, iron, and copper.
If you’ve been exposed to a lot of heavy metals, talk to a functional medicine doctor about chelation therapy. You really want to go to a medical professional for this one, because it’s so effective that if your liver and kidneys aren’t able to process the metals (a common problem in people with heavy metal poisoning) you can get seriously ill.
Combining detox methods for maximum effect
Each of these 7 methods works well on its own, and you can stack methods for an even greater effect. Exercise and sauna sessions are a good example. Preliminary evidence suggests that exercising and then hitting the sauna afterward will detoxify you better than either one alone does . With that in mind, here’s a sample detox protocol:
If you have a lot of fat and you’re burning it off quickly, you’re probably getting rid of a lot of toxins in one fell swoop, and you may get a headache, digestive problems, brain fog, etc. If that happens try taking more glutathione, vitamin C, and charcoal. Be sure you take charcoal at least an hour away from other supplements, as it binds to vitamin C.
Toxins are a fact of modern life, especially if you live in a city or somewhere with poor air quality, mold, and/or a lot of petrochemical byproducts. These detox methods can give your body a little extra support dealing with pollutants and help you perform your best.
Fragment(the heat haze of summer) KAMIN
This illusion M.H
BLANDNEW WAY ガネーシャ
Dewprism EndingThema(Rue) square
Fragment(the heat haze of summer) KAMIN
This illusion M.H
BLANDNEW WAY ガネーシャ
Dewprism EndingThema(Rue) square
If users want to prolong battery the efficient use of the time, in addition to the quality of the charger to have the guarantee, the right skills and charging is essential, because of low quality charger or wrong charging methods would affect battery time and life cycle, the following is about to charge skills:
1. The battery before they leave the factory, manufacturers were activated processing, and the charge, so the battery are more electricity, my friends say battery charging adjustment period in accordance with the time, standby still seriously insufficient, assuming that the battery is really quality goods battery of words, this kind of circumstance should extend the setting and then 3 ~ 5 times fully charge and discharge.
2. If new phone is lithium ion battery, so before 3 ~ 5 times charging commonly known as adjustment period, should be charged more than 14 hours, in order to ensure that the fully activate lithium ion activity. The lithium ion battery no memory effects, but have very strong sui sex, should give full activated PANASONIC CGR-D220 Battery, to guarantee the use of after can reach the right performance.
3. Some automation intelligent quick charger when instructions lights change, said only full of 90%. The charger will automatically change with slow charge will batteries. Best will use after batteries, otherwise, it will shorten use time.
4. Before charging and discharging lithium battery does not need special, but will not discharge damage to the battery. As far as possible when charging at the slow ChongChongDian, reduce the way quick charge; Time don't more than 24 hours. The battery after three to five times fully recharge cycles of internal after chemical will be all "activate" to achieve the best use effect.
5. Please use the original or the reputation of the good brand charger, li-ion battery to lithium battery charger with special, and follow the instructions, otherwise, it will damage to the battery, and even dangerous.
6. Have many users often in charge still leave her cell phone, actually such will be very easy to PANASONIC CGA-S101E/1B Battery damage the service life of the mobile phone, because in charge of the process, the circuit boards of mobile phone can calorific, if this time more exotic phone, may produce instant backflow current, internal parts to mobile phone damage.
7. The battery life depends on the number repeatedly charging and discharging, so should try to avoid more battery electric charge when, this will shorten battery life. Cell phone time more than 7 days, supposed to completely discharge the cell phone battery, enough electricity before use.
8. The cell phone battery have self-discharge, need not when the nimh batteries will press the residual capacity every day, about 1% of the discharge, lithium battery every day to 0.2% ~ 0.3% discharge. In for the battery, try to use the special socket, don't will the home appliance such as the Shared and the TV charger socket.
9. Though the phones in the network coverage area, but in the cell phone charge, cell phones have been unable to accept and call. At this time, can use of the mobile phone is not transfer function, will be transferred to the mobile phone side of fixed telephone in order to prevent calls lost, this kind of method for mobile phone is not in the network coverage of the area or weak signal and temporarily unable to the applicable also.
10. Don't will be exposed to high temperature or cold PANASONIC DMW-BCG10E Battery , as the dog, should not put the phone on the car, and the sun blazed through the; Or get air conditioning room, in air conditioning to be blown continuously place. When charging, the battery is a little heat is normal, but can't let it what the high temperature "suffer". In order to avoid the happening of this kind of circumstance, had better be in charge at room temperature, and don't cover anything on the mobile phone.
12. If the cell phone battery placed too long and not use, the best maintenance department to cell phones to the application for a live processing, also can use a constant dc voltage is the voltage adjustment for 5 ~ 6 V, current 500 ~ 600 mA reverse connect battery. Note that a touch namely release, the most repeated three times can, through such treatment after another, with the original adapter to "adaptation" charge.
14. Lithium ion battery must choose special charger, otherwise may not reach the saturated state, affect their performance. Charging completes, should avoid to place in charger on more than 12 hours or more, long-term need not when should make a battery and cell phone separation.
Digital camera battery is the key for the key, second in importance only lens I’m afraid, and in order to photograph in your heart, a powerful battery to provide power as a follow-up is essential. But even the best battery time, if not properly carry out maintenance and maintenance, will not take long to lose the strong power, so battery maintenance is very important.
For a (section) digital camera battery for the duration of use, not just its quality, power on, in fact, the use of operations with the user also has great relevance. Most photographers are used after every use of the camera on the camera bag inside, or on the cupboard, took out the battery is not kept separately, this approach sounds fine, but not conducive to battery protection.
If more than 15 days do not usually use the camera, it is best to remove the battery from the camera inside the store alone, save the environment, it is best to dry and cool place, and do not store the battery together with metal objects.
According to our survey, you can buy in the market most digital cameras use lithium batteries, it is relatively easy to store. The only caveat is that if not used for long, preferably at intervals of 2 months to activate a battery, which is the charge and discharge time, this can effectively extend battery life.
As for the Ni-MH battery 5, the most annoying is the memory effect, this effect will reduce the overall battery capacity and the use of time, and as time goes on, less and less stored charge, the battery will consume the more you have to faster. Therefore, we should try to run out of power rechargeable, each charge must be sufficient to power the most full.
If you go out, the temporary use of alkaline batteries, we must remember that time out, or when unused for long periods, the battery is easy to Tangshui corrosion circuit, the digital camera battery could not escape the destiny scrapped.
For users of alkaline batteries, already mentioned above, remember the point is finished using the digital camera, remove the battery must remember to avoid the phenomenon of cell sap and damage the machine.
As for the use of rechargeable nickel-metal hydride batteries and lithium users. Battery charge is very particular about, bought back the batteries are generally very low or no power consumption, the first charge must be adequate. Lithium battery charging time is generally longer than 8 hours, while the Ni-MH battery charging time is generally more than 16 hours. To achieve best results, that is, the battery has reached its maximum capacity, generally more than 3 times repeated charge-discharge can. Battery with three times, the best opportunity to find a completely exhausted battery to charge again, try not to charge the battery when there are remnants of repeated charge, or will shorten battery life. After the battery charge is generally more heat, it is best to be cool and then into the camera battery.
In addition, in order to avoid the loss of electricity, the use of nickel-metal hydride battery user, charging is completed, remove the battery, do not let the battery contact with the conductor while the positive and negative poles, for example, do not use your fingers touch both ends of the battery. The use of lithium users should try to keep the camera inside the battery positive and negative battery contacts clean, if necessary, wipe with a dry cloth and then gently wipe the battery.
Also note that, even if the user is to use lithium batteries, digital camera in a long time when not in use, should be completely discharged, remove the battery, stored in a dry, cool environment. The other thing to note is that both the nickel-hydrogen batteries or lithium batteries using the user, it is best not to have a charged battery on the purse, pocket, bag or container with metal objects, in order to prevent short-circuit .
1, to avoid frequent use of flash: If you are not professional photographers, then, except in the invisible fingers of the night, the light intensity of an ordinary day for the average digital camera, it is enough.
2, try to avoid unnecessary zoom operation: zoom the camera lens stretched it out a reduction, is power digital camera battery. You can move the pace of hyperactivity, with “artificial zoom” approach instead of “camera zoom” to save power.
3, Do not let the screen has been lit: If the case of small power, can turn off the LCD screen, use the viewfinder to adjust the picture composition, is for a digital camera, LCD should be considered the most power-hungry components, general digital camera, LCD screen after closing time can be used when the original length of about 3 times.
4, less shooting and video: minimize the use of multi-shot feature and video capture video, as the completion of these functions is to use the built-in buffer body to temporarily save the screen shot, the power consumption a lot.
5, should not frequently open, shut down: Many users know that the display stays lit is power, so in order to save electricity use to frequent opening and shutdown. In fact, frequently open, shut down the electricity wasted consumption than bright display even more, especially for larger diameter lenses, but also requires a substantial expansion of the camera, the switch is power. Most digital cameras have automatic shutdown option, this setting should not be set too short, otherwise easily lead to frequent opening and shut down. Of course, frequent artificial opening, shut down and should be avoided.
6, optical image stabilization not normally open: Optical image stabilization is by driving the lens or image sensor pack components, offset by the subject matter images and the relative motion between the sensor achieved. Either way the optical image stabilization, would result in no small power consumption, in particular some models can be anti-shake mode is set to “always on” so that power loss will be caused by the more powerful. To this end, we have a good scene in the light should turn off the optical image stabilization feature, you must use, should also be less “always on” mode.
According to the energy requirements of the final application, a battery may contain up to 4 lithium ion or lithium polymer battery core, its configuration will have a variety of change, at the same time with a mainstream power adapter: direct adapter, USB interface or car charger. Remove the core quantity, core configuration or power adapter type difference, the battery has the same charge characteristics. So they charge algorithm. Lithium ion and li-ion polymer battery best charging algorithm can divided into three phases: trickle charge, rapid charging and stable charge.
Remove some very low-end equipment, now on the market/li-ion polymer lithium ion battery solutions are integrated with the outer components or, in accordance with the characteristics of the charging to charge, this is not just to get better effect charge, but also for safety.
LTC4097 can be used to exchange adapter or USB power supply for single quarter/polymer lithium ion battery. Figure 1 for double input 1.2 A lithium battery charger LTC4097 schemes. It USES constant current/constant voltage algorithm charging, from exchange adapter power charge, programmable filling up to 1.2 electric current A, and with USB power can be as high as 1 A, at the same time, automatic detection in each input voltage whether there. This device also provide USB the current limit. Applications include PDA, MP3 players, digital camera, light portable medical and test equipment and big color cellular phone. The performance characteristics: no external micro controller charging termination; The input power automatic detection and choice; Through the resistance from the exchange of charging adapter input can be as high as 1.2 A programming charge current; The resistance of programmable USB charging current is up to 1 A; 100% or 20% USB charging current set; The input power output and existing bias NTC (VNTC) pin as a 120 mA drive ability; NTC thermistors input (NTC) pin for temperature qualified charged; Pre-settings battery voltage with floating plus or minus 0.6% accuracy; Thermal regulation maximize charge rate and free hot air LTC4097 can be used to exchange adapter or USB power supply for single quarter/polymer lithium ion battery. The use of constant current/constant voltage algorithm charging, from exchange adapter power charge, programmable filling up to 1.2 electric current A, and with USB power can be as high as 1 A, at the same time, automatic detection in each input voltage whether there. This device also provide USB the current limit. Applications include PDA, MP3 players, digital camera, light portable medical and test equipment and big color cellular phone.
Lithium ion/polymer battery charge scheme for different number of core, core configuration, and power types are different. At present mainly have three main charging scheme: linear, Buck (step-down) switch and SEPIC (booster and step-down) switch.
When the input voltage in big with the charger with sufficient clearance of core after opening voltage, it is linear scheme, especially 1.0 C fast charging current than 1 A big too much. For example, MP3 players usually only one core, capacity from 700 to 1500 mAh differ, full charge voltage is open 4.2 V. MP3 player power is usually the AC/DC adapter or USB interface, the output is the rule of 5 V; At this time, the linear scheme is the most simple, most charger of the efficiency of the scheme. Figure 2 shows for lithium ion/polymer battery solution linear scheme, basic structure and linear voltage neat device.
MAX8677A is double input USB/AC adapter linear charger, built-in Smart Power Selector, used for rechargeable single quarter by Li + batteries portable devices. The charger integration of the battery and the external power source and load switch charging all the power switch, so that no external MOSFET. MAX8677A ideal used in portable devices, such as smart phones, PDA, portable media players, GPS navigation equipment, digital camera, and digital cameras.
MAX8677A can work in independent USB and the power input AC adapter or two input either one of the input. When connecting external power supply, intelligent power source selector allows the system not connect battery or can and depth discharge battery connection. Intelligent power source selector will automatically switch to the battery system load, use the system did not use the input power supply parts for battery, make full use of limited USB and adapter power supply input. All the needed electric current detection circuit, including the integration of the power switch, all integration in the piece. DC input current highest limit can be adjusted to 2 A and DC and USB input all can support 100 mA, 500 mA, and USB hung mode. Charge current can be adjusted to as high as 1.5 A, thus support wide range of battery capacitive. Other features include MAX8677A thermal regulation, over-voltage protection, charging status and fault output, power supply good surveillance, battery thermistors surveillance, and charging timer. MAX8677A using save a space, hot enhanced, 4 mm x 4 mm, 24 of the pins TQFN encapsulation, regulations, work in exceptional temperature range (40 ~ + 85 ℃).
When A 1.0 C of the charging current more than 1 A, or the input voltage of the core than with high voltage open many, Buck or step-down plan is A better choice. For example, based on the hard drive in the PMP, often use single core lithium ion battery, the full of open is 4.2 V voltage, capacity from 1200 to 2400 mAh range. And now PMP is usually use the car kit to charge, its output voltage in a 9 V to 16 between V. In the input voltage and battery voltage is the voltage difference between high (minimum 4.8 V) will make linear scheme lowers efficiency. This kind of low efficiency, plus more than 1.2 A 1 C fast charging electric current, have serious heat dissipation problems. To avoid this kind of situation, will the Buck scheme. Figure 3 for lithium ion/polymer battery charger scheme Buck diagram, basic structure with Buck (step-down) switching voltage regulators completely the same.
In some use of three or four lithium ion/polymer core series equipments, charger of the input voltage is not always greater than the battery voltage. For example, laptop computers use 3 core lithium ion battery, full charge voltage is open 12.6 V (4.2 V x3), capacity is 1800 mAh to 3600 mAh from. Power supply input or output voltage is 1 6 V AC/DC adapter, or is car kit, the output voltage in a 9 V to 16 between V. Apparently, the linear and Buck solutions are not for this group of batteries. This is about to use SEPIC scheme, it can in the output voltage is higher than when the battery voltage, can be in the output voltage less than when the battery.
Many portable products use voltage measurements to estimate the remaining battery power, but the battery voltage and surplus power relationship but will with the discharge rate, temperature and battery aging degree of change, make this kind of method can top 50% margin of error. The market for longer to use product demand unceasingly strengthens, so the system design personnel need more accurate solution. Use capacity check plan come to measure battery or consumption of electricity, will be in a wide range of application power to provide more accurate estimate of the battery power.
The battery circuit description. Figure 4 (a) can be used for identification of IC functions with typical application circuit batteries. According to the use of IC testing program is different, the battery needs to have at least three to four outside the terminal.
VCC and BAT pins will even to the battery voltage, so that for, C power and the battery voltage measurement. The battery is connected a grounding resistance smaller detection resistors, let capacity check meter high impedance SRP and SRN input can monitor sensor resistance on both ends of the voltage. Through testing the current flows through a resistor can be used to judge the battery or release the amount of electricity. Designers choose detection resistance value must be considered when resistance on both ends of the voltage can't more than 100 mV, low resistance may be more hours in current errors. Circuit board layout must ensure that SRP and SRN to testing from as close as possible to the connection of the resistor sensor resistance end; In other words, they should be the Kelvin attachment.
HDQ pin need external and resistors, this resistance should be located the host or the main application, such capacity check plan to the battery and portable devices when sleep function enable connection broken. Advice and resistance choose 10 k Ω.
Once the battery through the appraisal, bq26150 will issue commands to ensure that the host and quantity test plan of material lines between normal communication. When the battery connection interruption or to connect, the whole the identification process will be repeated again.
Host to be able to read capacity check plan of variable voltage measurement battery, to make sure the end of discharging threshold and charging terminate threshold. As for the remaining state power (RemainingStateofCapacity), do not need to read can use directly.
The above bq2650x and bq27x00 etc capacity check plan provides the battery manufacturer a simple to use options, this scheme L [just measuring battery voltage to be precise, so these capacity check plan can be applied to various battery framework, and can support the battery identification and double the battery application '
Today's many manufacturers can provide a variety of voltmeter IC,, the user can choose the suitable function device, to optimize the product price. Use voltmeter measurement of storage battery parameters, the separate architecture allows users in the host custom power measurement algorithm within. Eliminating embedded processor battery cost. On this to Dallase semicconductor company called cases of DS2762 chip for typical analysis. A new separate voltmeter IC, its structure see chart 5 (a) below.
DS2762 is a single quarter of lithium battery voltmeter and protection circuit, integrated into a tiny 2.46 mm x 2.74 mm inversion of packaging. Due to internal integration for power detection of high precise resistance, this device is very save a space. It is the small size and incomparable high level of integration, for mobile phone battery and other similar handheld products, such as PDA, etc, are all very ideal. Integrated protection circuit continuously monitoring the battery voltage, over voltage and flow fault (charging or discharge period). Different from the independent protection IC, DS2762 allow main processor surveillance/control protection FET conduction state, such, can DS2762 through the protection of the power system and the control circuit implementation. DS2762 can also charge a battery consumption has depth, when the battery voltage within three V, provide a limit of the charging current recovery path.
DS2762 accurate monitoring battery current, voltage and temperature, the dynamic range and resolution of common satisfy any mobile communication product testing standards. The measurement of current for internally generated when the integral, realize the power measurement. Through the real-time, continuous automatic disorders correct, the precision of power measurement can be increased. The built-in measuring resistance due to eliminate manufacturing process and temperature and cause resistance change, further improve the precision of the voltmeter. Important data stored in 32 bytes, can add the lock EEPROM; 16 bytes of SRAM are used to keep dynamic data. And DS2762 all communication all through the 1-Wire, more communication interface node, minimize the battery and the connection to the host. Its main features for; Single quarter of lithium battery protector; High precision current (power measurement), voltage and temperature measurement; Optional integrated 25 m Ω measuring resistance, each DS2762 after fine-tuning alone; 0 V battery restore charge; 32 bytes can lock EEPROM, 16 bytes SRAM, 64 a ROM;
1-Wire, node, digital communication interface; Support more battery power management, and through the protection system control FET power; Dormancy mode power supply current only 2 µ A (most); Work mode power supply current for 90 µ A (most); 2.46 mm x 2.74 mm inversion of packaging or 16 feet SSOP package led, and both are can choose with or without detection resistance; After has with e
When the diesel generators were gone, the reactor operators switched to emergency battery power. The batteries were designed as one of the backups to the backups, to provide power for cooling the core for 8 hours. And they did.
Within the 8 hours, another power source had to be found and connected to the power plant. The power grid was down due to the earthquake. The diesel generators were destroyed by the tsunami. So mobile diesel generators were trucked in.
This is where things started to go seriously wrong. The external power generators could not be connected to the power plant (the plugs did not fit). So after the batteries ran out, the residual heat could not be carried away any more.
At this point the plant operators begin to follow emergency procedures that are in place for a “loss of cooling event”. It is again a step along the “Depth of Defense” lines. The power to the cooling systems should never have failed completely, but it did, so they “retreat” to the next line of defense. All of this, however shocking it seems to us, is part of the day-to-day training you go through as an operator, right through to managing a core meltdown.
It was at this stage that people started to talk about core meltdown. Because at the end of the day, if cooling cannot be restored, the core will eventually melt (after hours or days), and the last line of defense, the core catcher and third containment, would come into play.
But the goal at this stage was to manage the core while it was heating up, and ensure that the first containment (the Zircaloy tubes that contains the nuclear fuel), as well as the second containment (our pressure cooker) remain intact and operational for as long as possible, to give the engineers time to fix the cooling systems.
Because cooling the core is such a big deal, the reactor has a number of cooling systems, each in multiple versions (the reactor water cleanup system, the decay heat removal, the reactor core isolating cooling, the standby liquid cooling system, and the emergency core cooling system). Which one failed when or did not fail is not clear at this point in time.
So imagine our pressure cooker on the stove, heat on low, but on. The operators use whatever cooling system capacity they have to get rid of as much heat as possible, but the pressure starts building up. The priority now is to maintain integrity of the first containment (keep temperature of the fuel rods below 2200°C), as well as the second containment, the pressure cooker. In order to maintain integrity of the pressure cooker (the second containment), the pressure has to be released from time to time. Because the ability to do that in an emergency is so important, the reactor has 11 pressure release valves. The operators now started venting steam from time to time to control the pressure. The temperature at this stage was about 550°C.
This is when the reports about “radiation leakage” starting coming in. I believe I explained above why venting the steam is theoretically the same as releasing radiation into the environment, but why it was and is not dangerous. The radioactive nitrogen as well as the noble gases do not pose a threat to human health.
At some stage during this venting, the explosion occurred. The explosion took place outside of the third containment (our “last line of defense”), and the reactor building. Remember that the reactor building has no function in keeping the radioactivity contained. It is not entirely clear yet what has happened, but this is the likely scenario: The operators decided to vent the steam from the pressure vessel not directly into the environment, but into the space between the third containment and the reactor building (to give the radioactivity in the steam more time to subside). The problem is that at the high temperatures that the core had reached at this stage, water molecules can “disassociate” into oxygen and hydrogen – an explosive mixture. And it did explode, outside the third containment, damaging the reactor building around. It was that sort of explosion, but inside the pressure vessel (because it was badly designed and not managed properly by the operators) that lead to the explosion of Chernobyl. This was never a risk at Fukushima. The problem of hydrogen-oxygen formation is one of the biggies when you design a power plant (if you are not Soviet, that is), so the reactor is build and operated in a way it cannot happen inside the containment. It happened outside, which was not intended but a possible scenario and OK, because it did not pose a risk for the containment.
So the pressure was under control, as steam was vented. Now, if you keep boiling your pot, the problem is that the water level will keep falling and falling. The core is covered by several meters of water in order to allow for some time to pass (hours, days) before it gets exposed. Once the rods start to be exposed at the top, the exposed parts will reach the critical temperature of 2200 °C after about 45 minutes. This is when the first containment, the Zircaloy tube, would fail.
And this started to happen. The cooling could not be restored before there was some (very limited, but still) damage to the casing of some of the fuel. The nuclear material itself was still intact, but the surrounding Zircaloy shell had started melting. What happened now is that some of the byproducts of the uranium decay – radioactive Cesium and Iodine – started to mix with the steam. The big problem, uranium, was still under control, because the uranium oxide rods were good until 3000 °C. It is confirmed that a very small amount of Cesium and Iodine was measured in the steam that was released into the atmosphere.
It seems this was the “go signal” for a major plan B. The small amounts of Cesium that were measured told the operators that the first containment on one of the rods somewhere was about to give. The Plan A had been to restore one of the regular cooling systems to the core. Why that failed is unclear. One plausible explanation is that the tsunami also took away / polluted all the clean water needed for the regular cooling systems.
The water used in the cooling system is very clean, demineralized (like distilled) water. The reason to use pure water is the above mentioned activation by the neutrons from the Uranium: Pure water does not get activated much, so stays practically radioactive-free. Dirt or salt in the water will absorb the neutrons quicker, becoming more radioactive. This has no effect whatsoever on the core – it does not care what it is cooled by. But it makes life more difficult for the operators and mechanics when they have to deal with activated (i.e. slightly radioactive) water.
In order to prevent a core meltdown, the operators started to use sea water to cool the core. I am not quite sure if they flooded our pressure cooker with it (the second containment), or if they flooded the third containment, immersing the pressure cooker. But that is not relevant for us.
The point is that the nuclear fuel has now been cooled down. Because the chain reaction has been stopped a long time ago, there is only very little residual heat being produced now. The large amount of cooling water that has been used is sufficient to take up that heat. Because it is a lot of water, the core does not produce sufficient heat any more to produce any significant pressure. Also, boric acid has been added to the seawater. Boric acid is “liquid control rod”. Whatever decay is still going on, the Boron will capture the neutrons and further speed up the cooling down of the core.
The plant came close to a core meltdown. Here is the worst-case scenario that was avoided: If the seawater could not have been used for treatment, the operators would have continued to vent the water steam to avoid pressure buildup. The third containment would then have been completely sealed to allow the core meltdown to happen without releasing radioactive material. After the meltdown, there would have been a waiting period for the intermediate radioactive materials to decay inside the reactor, and all radioactive particles to settle on a surface inside the containment. The cooling system would have been restored eventually, and the molten core cooled to a manageable temperature. The containment would have been cleaned up on the inside. Then a messy job of removing the molten core from the containment would have begun, packing the (now solid again) fuel bit by bit into transportation containers to be shipped to processing plants. Depending on the damage, the block of the plant would then either be repaired or dismantled.
・Some radiation was released when the pressure vessel was vented. All radioactive isotopes from the activated steam have gone (decayed). A very small amount of Cesium was released, as well as Iodine. If you were sitting on top of the plants’ chimney when they were venting, you should probably give up smoking to return to your former life expectancy. The Cesium and Iodine isotopes were carried out to the sea and will never be seen again.
・There was some limited damage to the first containment. That means that some amounts of radioactive Cesium and Iodine will also be released into the cooling water, but no Uranium or other nasty stuff (the Uranium oxide does not “dissolve” in the water). There are facilities for treating the cooling water inside the third containment. The radioactive Cesium and Iodine will be removed there and eventually stored as radioactive waste in terminal storage.
・The seawater used as cooling water will be activated to some degree. Because the control rods are fully inserted, the Uranium chain reaction is not happening. That means the “main” nuclear reaction is not happening, thus not contributing to the activation. The intermediate radioactive materials (Cesium and Iodine) are also almost gone at this stage, because the Uranium decay was stopped a long time ago. This further reduces the activation. The bottom line is that there will be some low level of activation of the seawater, which will also be removed by the treatment facilities.
・I believe the most significant problem will be a prolonged power shortage. About half of Japan’s nuclear reactors will probably have to be inspected, reducing the nation’s power generating capacity by 15%. This will probably be covered by running gas power plants that are usually only used for peak loads to cover some of the base load as well. That will increase your electricity bill, as well as lead to potential power shortages during peak demand, in Japan.
He is a PhD Scientist, whose father has extensive experience in Germany’s nuclear industry. I asked him to write this information to my family in Australia, who were being made sick with worry by the media reports coming from Japan. I am republishing it with his permission.
I am writing this text (Mar 12) to give you some peace of mind regarding some of the troubles in Japan, that is the safety of Japan’s nuclear reactors. Up front, the situation is serious, but under control. And this text is long! But you will know more about nuclear power plants after reading it than all journalists on this planet put together.
By “significant” I mean a level of radiation of more than what you would receive on – say – a long distance flight, or drinking a glass of beer that comes from certain areas with high levels of natural background radiation.
I have been reading every news release on the incident since the earthquake. There has not been one single (!) report that was accurate and free of errors (and part of that problem is also a weakness in the Japanese crisis communication). By “not free of errors” I do not refer to tendentious anti-nuclear journalism – that is quite normal these days. By “not free of errors” I mean blatant errors regarding physics and natural law, as well as gross misinterpretation of facts, due to an obvious lack of fundamental and basic understanding of the way nuclear reactors are build and operated. I have read a 3 page report on CNN where every single paragraph contained an error.
The plants at Fukushima are so called Boiling Water Reactors, or BWR for short. Boiling Water Reactors are similar to a pressure cooker. The nuclear fuel heats water, the water boils and creates steam, the steam then drives turbines that create the electricity, and the steam is then cooled and condensed back to water, and the water send back to be heated by the nuclear fuel. The pressure cooker operates at about 250 °C.
The nuclear fuel is uranium oxide. Uranium oxide is a ceramic with a very high melting point of about 3000 °C. The fuel is manufactured in pellets (think little cylinders the size of Lego bricks). Those pieces are then put into a long tube made of Zircaloy with a melting point of 2200 °C, and sealed tight. The assembly is called a fuel rod. These fuel rods are then put together to form larger packages, and a number of these packages are then put into the reactor. All these packages together are referred to as “the core”.
The core is then placed in the “pressure vessels”. That is the pressure cooker we talked about before. The pressure vessels is the second containment. This is one sturdy piece of a pot, designed to safely contain the core for temperatures several hundred °C. That covers the scenarios where cooling can be restored at some point.
The entire “hardware” of the nuclear reactor – the pressure vessel and all pipes, pumps, coolant (water) reserves, are then encased in the third containment. The third containment is a hermetically (air tight) sealed, very thick bubble of the strongest steel. The third containment is designed, built and tested for one single purpose: To contain, indefinitely, a complete core meltdown. For that purpose, a large and thick concrete basin is cast under the pressure vessel (the second containment), which is filled with graphite, all inside the third containment. This is the so-called “core catcher”. If the core melts and the pressure vessel bursts (and eventually melts), it will catch the molten fuel and everything else. It is built in such a way that the nuclear fuel will be spread out, so it can cool down.
This third containment is then surrounded by the reactor building. The reactor building is an outer shell that is supposed to keep the weather out, but nothing in. (this is the part that was damaged in the explosion, but more to that later).
The uranium fuel generates heat by nuclear fission. Big uranium atoms are split into smaller atoms. That generates heat plus neutrons (one of the particles that forms an atom). When the neutron hits another uranium atom, that splits, generating more neutrons and so on. That is called the nuclear chain reaction.
Now, just packing a lot of fuel rods next to each other would quickly lead to overheating and after about 45 minutes to a melting of the fuel rods. It is worth mentioning at this point that the nuclear fuel in a reactor can *never* cause a nuclear explosion the type of a nuclear bomb. Building a nuclear bomb is actually quite difficult (ask Iran). In Chernobyl, the explosion was caused by excessive pressure buildup, hydrogen explosion and rupture of all containments, propelling molten core material into the environment (a “dirty bomb”). Why that did not and will not happen in Japan, further below.
In order to control the nuclear chain reaction, the reactor operators use so-called “moderator rods”. The moderator rods absorb the neutrons and kill the chain reaction instantaneously. A nuclear reactor is built in such a way, that when operating normally, you take out all the moderator rods. The coolant water then takes away the heat (and converts it into steam and electricity) at the same rate as the core produces it. And you have a lot of leeway around the standard operating point of 250°C.
The challenge is that after inserting the rods and stopping the chain reaction, the core still keeps producing heat. The uranium “stopped” the chain reaction. But a number of intermediate radioactive elements are created by the uranium during its fission process, most notably Cesium and Iodine isotopes, i.e. radioactive versions of these elements that will eventually split up into smaller atoms and not be radioactive anymore. Those elements keep decaying and producing heat. Because they are not regenerated any longer from the uranium (the uranium stopped decaying after the moderator rods were put in), they get less and less, and so the core cools down over a matter of days, until those intermediate radioactive elements are used up.
There is a second type of radioactive material created, outside the fuel rods. The big main difference up front: Those radioactive materials have a very short half-life, that means that they decay very fast and split into non-radioactive materials. By fast I mean seconds. So if these radioactive materials are released into the environment, yes, radioactivity was released, but no, it is not dangerous, at all. Why? By the time you spelled “R-A-D-I-O-N-U-C-L-I-D-E”, they will be harmless, because they will have split up into non radioactive elements. Those radioactive elements are N-16, the radioactive isotope (or version) of nitrogen (air). The others are noble gases such as Xenon. But where do they come from? When the uranium splits, it generates a neutron (see above). Most of these neutrons will hit other uranium atoms and keep the nuclear chain reaction going. But some will leave the fuel rod and hit the water molecules, or the air that is in the water. Then, a non-radioactive element can “capture” the neutron. It becomes radioactive. As described above, it will quickly (seconds) get rid again of the neutron to return to its former beautiful self.
I will try to summarize the main facts. The earthquake that hit Japan was 7 times more powerful than the worst earthquake the nuclear power plant was built for (the Richter scale works logarithmically; the difference between the 8.2 that the plants were built for and the 8.9 that happened is 7 times, not 0.7). So the first hooray for Japanese engineering, everything held up.
When the earthquake hit with 8.9, the nuclear reactors all went into automatic shutdown. Within seconds after the earthquake started, the moderator rods had been inserted into the core and nuclear chain reaction of the uranium stopped. Now, the cooling system has to carry away the residual heat. The residual heat load is about 3% of the heat load under normal operating conditions.
The earthquake destroyed the external power supply of the nuclear reactor. That is one of the most serious accidents for a nuclear power plant, and accordingly, a “plant black out” receives a lot of attention when designing backup systems. The power is needed to keep the coolant pumps working. Since the power plant had been shut down, it cannot produce any electricity by itself any more.
Things were going well for an hour. One set of multiple sets of emergency Diesel power generators kicked in and provided the electricity that was needed. Then the Tsunami came, much bigger than people had expected when building the power plant (see above, factor 7). The tsunami took out all multiple sets of backup Diesel generators.
When designing a nuclear power plant, engineers follow a philosophy called “Defense of Depth”. That means that you first build everything to withstand the worst catastrophe you can imagine, and then design the plant in such a way that it can still handle one system failure (that you thought could never happen) after the other. A tsunami taking out all backup power in one swift strike is such a scenario. The last line of defense is putting everything into the third containment (see above), that will keep everything, whatever the mess, moderator rods in our out, core molten or not, inside the reactor.