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はてなキーワード: bentとは

2016-12-30

規則動詞の分類別一覧

英語の不規則動詞はおおまかに,過去分詞がtかdで終わるもの(以下dtタイプ)とnで終わるもの(以下nタイプ)に分けられる。ほとんどのdtタイプ動詞過去形過去分詞形が同じ形で,A-B-B(一部はA-A-A)のように変化する。また,原形の末尾がdかtの不規則動詞ほとんどがdtタイプに属する。(例外eat,get,bid等)一方,ほとんどのnタイプの不規則動詞は原形,過去形過去分詞形がすべて異なり,A-B-Cのように変化する。

原形から過去過去分詞形になるときに起こる変化は基本的母音が変化するか末尾にdtnが加わるかの2種類,あるいはその両方で,原形にあった子音がなくなることは原則としてない。(例外:-ught型,went,had,made

表の説明

分類は以下の通り

  • dtタイプ
  • nタイプ
    • 【A-B-An】型
    • 【A-Aed-An】型
    • 【A-B-Bn】型
    • 【-dden,-tten】型
    • 【A-B-Cn】型
  • その他
    • 【i-a-u】型
    • 【A-B-B(その他)】型
    • 【その他】

become,forgetなど末尾にほかの不規則動詞を含むものは省いた。

表中の*は規則変化もし得ることを,#は他の不規則変化もし得ることを,!は意味によって変化が異なる単語であることを示す。

【A-A-A】型

すべてdかtで終わる。特に末尾tで短母音のものが多い。get,sitが含まれないことに注意。形が1種類で覚えやすいが,英文中の「have put」「is put」等を見てもビビらない心構えが必要

bet * bust * cast cost cut
hit knit! let put quit *
set shit *# shut sweat * thrust
wet* burst * hurt beat # bid #
clad glid * rid* shed spread
wed*
Ad-Bd-Bd】型

原形がdで終わる動詞母音を変化させて過去形過去分詞形になる型。最後のplead,read発音のみ変化する。

breedbred
feedfed
leadled
plead *#pled
speed !sped
tread #trod
bindbound
find found
grind ground
wind wound
chide *#chid
slide #slid
hold held
stand stood
abide *abode
plead *#plead
readread
Ad-At-At】型

原形の末尾のdがtに置き換わり,それ以外は綴り発音も変わらない。endで終わる動詞が多いが,end自体規則動詞。原形のほうが過去形っぽく見えたりするので注意が必要。逆パターン(At-Ad-Ad)は存在しない。

bend bent
lend lent
rend rent
send sent
spend spent
build built
geld *gelt
gird *girt
At-Bt-Bt】型

Ad-Bd-Bd】の末尾tバージョンget,sitはこちらに含まれる。

fightfought
light *lit
meet met
shoot shot
get #got
shit *#shat
sitsat
【A-Bd-Bd】型

末尾にdが加わるという点で規則動詞に近いが,付き方が特殊母音も変化する。

lay laid
pay paid
say said
sell sold
tell told
hear heard
flee fled
shoe *shod
baa *baa'd
makemade
have had
【A-Bt-Bt】型

末尾にtが加わる。原形の/iː/が/e/に変化するものが多い。

feelfelt
keep kept
sleep slept
weep wept
creep crept
kneel *knelt
sweep swept
leave left
bereave !bereft
cleave *#cleft
deal dealt
mean meant
dream *dreamt
lean *leant
leap *leapt
lose lost
spoil *spoilt
burn *burnt
learn *learnt
dwell dwelt
smell *smelt
spell *spelt
spill *spilt
drip *dript
grip *gript
wrap *wrapt
pen *pent
【-(o/a)ught】型

末尾が-oughtか-aughtに変化する。どちらも発音は/ɔːt/。wentを除けばもっとも原型をとどめない変化が起こるので過去形から原形を思い出せるようにしておく必要がある。

beseech *besought
bringbrought
buy bought
overwork *overwrought
seek sought
think thought
catchcaught
teach taught
【A-B-An】型

過去分詞形が原形+nとなるもの過去形では母音が変化している。fall,eatにはenが,do,goにはneが付くことに注意。

blowblewblown
grow grewgrown
know knewknown
throw threwthrown
drawdrewdrawn
shakeshookshaken
taketooktaken
drivedrovedriven
riseroserisen
strive strovestriven
thrive *throvethriven
see sawseen
give gavegiven
eatateeaten
fall fellfallen
do diddone
gowentgone
【A-Aed-An】型

【A-B-An】の亜種で,showに代表される過去形規則変化(-ed)になっているもの

grave *gravedgraven
hew *hewedhewn
mow *mowedmown
prove *provedproven
saw *sawedsawn
sew *sewedsewn
shave *shavedshaven
show *showedshown
sow *sowedsown
strew *strewedstrewn
【A-B-Bn】型

過去分詞形が過去形+nとなるもの。eが脱落するtear-tore-tornのパターンに注意。wakeはtake,makeと異なり,この型に属する。

break brokebroken
cleave *#clovecloven
freeze frozefrozen
speak spokespoken
steal stolestolen
weave !wovewoven
shrink #shrunkshrunken
wake wokewoken
bear !boreborn
swearsworesworn
tear toretorn
wearworeworn
bear !boreborne
【-dden,-tten】型

原型にd,tを含み,過去分詞形でそれが重なるものget以外は【A-B-An】に近いがgetは【A-B-Bn】に近い。

smite #smotesmitten
ride roderidden
writewrotewritten
bite bitbitten
chide *#chidchidden
hidehidhidden
slideslidslidden
bid #badebidden
forbid #forbadeforbidden
forbid #forbadforbidden
get #gotgotten
【A-B-Cn】型

過去分詞形にnが付くが,【A-B-An】でも【A-B-Bn】でもないもの

flyflewflown
lielaylain
slay slewslain
shear *shearedshorn
swell *swelledswollen
tread #treadedtrodden
【i-a-u】型

原型にiを含み,それがi-a-uと変化していくもの。わかりやすい変化だが数は少ない。

beginbeganbegun
drink drankdrunk
ringrangrung
shrink #shrankshrunk
singsangsung
sinksanksunk
spring #sprangsprung
stink #stankstunk
swim swamswum
【A-B-B(その他)】

dt型でないが,A-B-CではなくA-B-Bと変化するもの。末尾が-ingのものが多いが,bringring,singが含まれないことに注意。

clingclung
flingflung
slingslung
slink slunk
spling #splung
stingstung
stink stunk
stringstrung
swingswung
wringwrung
hang !hung
dig dug
stickstuck
strike struck
heave !hove
reeve *rove
stave *stove
shine !shone
winwon
【その他】
[A-B-C]
dive *dovedived
smite #smotesmit
[A-A-B]
beat #beatbeaten
[A-B-A]
come camecome
runranrun

2011-12-28

Brain distant a person

Nights, downward the actual curtain on the darkish. Rather busy day time people hurried towards home, along with the family unit. Daily belonging to the noisy town also proceeds towards the an old days or weeks all the tranquility. You bent LengYue has quietly hung in the shrubs, conceal behind the cloud towards relaxation daily belonging to the famous actors equally slowly awaken, start that rudiments associated with eyes, for the pulsating complete too stunning light.

I'm keen on private, to be a person at dusk the actual quiet not to mention delightful roadway for any go around. Additionally helpful to wander by themselves from this peaceful tiny most people about the roadways of skip anyone far away. While, WE need to know your location, also need to know in case you have consider me personally, however Actually, i know that right now, AS I genuinely wish to, beneficial presume a person......

If a wind power blowing into my personal heart, a center on instantly from the thoughts from films for hills. Because a vibrant moonlight on when in front of me personally, AS I view the moon has your own shadow. After the very first planet that's delightful some blasting music artist presently of the nighttime sky, WE apparently read the your wish and your ideal. In the event the moment meteor throughout from prior to me, as i similar my personal eyes, their hands collapsed for the shooting take the leading role developed a small amount, that is certainly, I allow meteor is actually my would like most people not to mention lose for you, and even inform you about, Now i am that quiet night, not a soul, great issue around far-away place of a person......

Winter weather event really black, extended, moreover very cold, AS I nevertheless wandering in this particular lengthy long occasion, for the reason that event WE surround, allow ice cold blowing wind blowing such as me, WHEN I is not aware. My center will be as if from most people glow thinkings from the terminate, getting rid of, this steamy the actual fire. The continue within boiling, the brain within rolling, the sensing stuffed, I adore floating within......

Guess what happens? So i'm scared on the dark, though adore within the night. So i'm scared on the cold, just who dropped fond of snow. I adore one, not saying you. WHEN I forget a person, though cannot explain. Since you also contain your own dream, you could have ones own goal, you could have your task, you could have much more the position and responsibilities. Well, i find it difficult to trouble you, find it difficult to supply you with difficulty, alot more cannot help you for WE distractions. Although I'm sure your own with the mind even wish to everybody, however I am able to only place you with the spirit. Silence from the heart belonging to the range to pass-up most people...

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