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The memory of my mother, going with her three children, with my little baby sister and my two younger brothers, going to the gas chamber, is the worst memory that I carry with me for the rest of my life.
A9892. Hungarian Transports.
Here we are,
Can you hear the voices?
I don't know how I survived.
I'm amazed how I survived.
The green environmental protection battery is to point to in recent years has been put into use or are development, the development of kind of high performance, no pollution batteries. At present already use large nickel metal hydride battery, the lithium ion battery and is expanded use of mercury free alkaline battery manganese zinc and rechargeable batteries and is research and development of lithium or lithium ion plastic pack and fuel cells belong to this category. In addition, it is widely used and use of solar energy for photoelectric convert solar cell (also called photovoltaic power generation), can also be included in this category.
Nickel metal hydride battery (Ni-MH) and nickel cadmium battery (Ni-Cd) have the same working voltage (1.2 V), due to the adoption of rare earth alloy or TiNi alloy anode materials for the activity of hydrogen storage material, replacing the carcinogen cadmium, which not only makes this battery became a kind of green environmental protection battery, and make a battery of energy than increased nearly 40%, to 80-60 Wh/kg and 210-240 Wh/L. The battery is 90 s gradually realize industrialization PANASONIC VW-VBK360 Battery , and the first to use in the cell phone battery. At present although it on their dominance of the gradually be lithium ion battery replaced, but mobile phone applications in Europe and America, and its market share is still at about 50%.
The lithium ion battery (Li-ion) is by can make the lithium ion embedding and take off the carbon embedded as negative, reversible intercalated-li metal oxide as the positive (LiCoO2, LiNiO2 or LiMn2O4) and organic electrolyte constitute, the working voltage of 3.6 V, so a lithium-ion battery is equivalent to three cadmium nickel metal hydride battery or nickel. Thus the batteries than energy is the over 100 Wh/kg and 280 Wh/L, and considerably more than the nickel metal hydride battery than energy. In view of the above advantages, since the 1993-2000 in just a few years, its production and usage with extremely high speed growth.
Alkaline manganese zinc dry (alkaline) compared with ordinary dry cell size has higher capacity PANASONIC CGA-S005E Battery, and have high discharge current ability. In recent years has been used on mercury zinc powder, therefore make the battery become a green battery, and become the mainstream battery products, at present the alkaline xinmeng dry cell is still BP machine use most power supply. At the same time, the world is the battery charged on the sex, an American company has launched a charged battery alkali manganese, product and application of slow growth. Such batteries keep the battery discharge characteristics, but also can be recharged using a dozen times to hundreds of times (deep recharge cycles life of about 25 times).
Lithium plastic battery (LIP) is for lithium metal anode, conductive polymers of electrolyte for new battery, the energy than has reached 170 Wh/kg and 350 Wh/L. The lithium ion battery is will present plastic of organic lithium ion battery electrolyte stored in a polymer membrane, or use conductive polymer as electrolyte, make a battery in no free the electrolyte. Such batteries can use aluminum plastic composite membrane realize hot pressing encapsulation, with light weight, shape can be arbitrary change, safety better characteristics.
Fuel cells (FC) is a kind of use of fuel (such as hydrogen or contain fuel) and antioxidant (such as pure oxygen or the oxygen in air) for power generation device directly, because avoided the carnot cycle limit, this power unit is not only high efficiency (electrochemical reactions conversion efficiency can be as high as 40% or more), and no pollution discharge gas, so is the future of efficient and clean power generation method. Many companies at home and abroad are engaged in development for mobile phones, notebook computers, the PEM fuel cell, once put into application, and its economy benefit greatly.
In addition to the above, in view of the communication industry growth, China's battery industry is with extremely high speed to promote environmental protection mercury-free alkali manganese zinc original pool and rechargeable batteries and seal lead-acid battery technology development and application expansion market.
Kohlenstoff 14 is radioactive material which is found by recent research that those who are exposed to Kohlenstoff 14 die extremely high mortality rate. This post is intended to warn U.S. citizens for the potential risk of receiving kohlenstoff 14 and to give brief radiological effects from Kohlenstoff 14.
Kohlenstoff 14 is dangerous itself, but it can react with Hydrogen to compose high addictive materials. These chemical compounds cause liver disease death. Several peer reviewed journal articles reveal that 14,406 died in US due to liver disease caused by chemical compounds of Kohlenstoff and hydrogen. Its high addictiveness is found that after first intake of these compounds, nearly a half of adult starts to take these chemical compounds again and again (Those who want accurate number, it is 52%.) Even worse, these chemical compounds cause loss of consciousness and ability to think. This effect is accounted for death of 23,199 in 2007.
The danger of its chemical compounds is explained. However, the danger of Kohlenstoff 14 never ends. It must be carefully stated that, Kohlenstoff 14 does not cause all people to commit crime. Research was conducted to determine how often prisoners take Kohlenstoff 14. It was found that 100% of subjects in this research take or took Kohlenstoff 14 in their live before imprisonment. This research did not take sufficient enough number of subjects, but it gives possibility that Kohlenstoff 14 may drive people to commit crime. Furthermore research is needed.
Kohlenstoff 14 dies hard. It is found by research that Kohlenstoff 14 remains in body for the rest of life even after intake of one pill (Dose is not important. Regardless the amount of dose, it remains.) In addition to this, the Kohlenstoff 14 is characterized by its very long half-life. It is quite impossible for it to disappear naturally. Therefore, special medical treatment must be applied to those who previously receive Kohlenstoff 14 in their live.
• It is found in greenhouse gas.
• Some infants are found to have taken Kohlenstoff.
• It reacts with Oxygen and causes fire.
• Kohlenstoff is very useful material for engineering purpose.
I explained the danger of Kohlenstoff 14 and I suggest U.S. citizens to work on banning these radioactive materials and to make an environment free from Kohlenstoff 14. It is expected that Kohlenstoff 14 fee environment costs more than 100 billion dollars, however.
When the diesel generators were gone, the reactor operators switched to emergency battery power. The batteries were designed as one of the backups to the backups, to provide power for cooling the core for 8 hours. And they did.
Within the 8 hours, another power source had to be found and connected to the power plant. The power grid was down due to the earthquake. The diesel generators were destroyed by the tsunami. So mobile diesel generators were trucked in.
This is where things started to go seriously wrong. The external power generators could not be connected to the power plant (the plugs did not fit). So after the batteries ran out, the residual heat could not be carried away any more.
At this point the plant operators begin to follow emergency procedures that are in place for a “loss of cooling event”. It is again a step along the “Depth of Defense” lines. The power to the cooling systems should never have failed completely, but it did, so they “retreat” to the next line of defense. All of this, however shocking it seems to us, is part of the day-to-day training you go through as an operator, right through to managing a core meltdown.
It was at this stage that people started to talk about core meltdown. Because at the end of the day, if cooling cannot be restored, the core will eventually melt (after hours or days), and the last line of defense, the core catcher and third containment, would come into play.
But the goal at this stage was to manage the core while it was heating up, and ensure that the first containment (the Zircaloy tubes that contains the nuclear fuel), as well as the second containment (our pressure cooker) remain intact and operational for as long as possible, to give the engineers time to fix the cooling systems.
Because cooling the core is such a big deal, the reactor has a number of cooling systems, each in multiple versions (the reactor water cleanup system, the decay heat removal, the reactor core isolating cooling, the standby liquid cooling system, and the emergency core cooling system). Which one failed when or did not fail is not clear at this point in time.
So imagine our pressure cooker on the stove, heat on low, but on. The operators use whatever cooling system capacity they have to get rid of as much heat as possible, but the pressure starts building up. The priority now is to maintain integrity of the first containment (keep temperature of the fuel rods below 2200°C), as well as the second containment, the pressure cooker. In order to maintain integrity of the pressure cooker (the second containment), the pressure has to be released from time to time. Because the ability to do that in an emergency is so important, the reactor has 11 pressure release valves. The operators now started venting steam from time to time to control the pressure. The temperature at this stage was about 550°C.
This is when the reports about “radiation leakage” starting coming in. I believe I explained above why venting the steam is theoretically the same as releasing radiation into the environment, but why it was and is not dangerous. The radioactive nitrogen as well as the noble gases do not pose a threat to human health.
At some stage during this venting, the explosion occurred. The explosion took place outside of the third containment (our “last line of defense”), and the reactor building. Remember that the reactor building has no function in keeping the radioactivity contained. It is not entirely clear yet what has happened, but this is the likely scenario: The operators decided to vent the steam from the pressure vessel not directly into the environment, but into the space between the third containment and the reactor building (to give the radioactivity in the steam more time to subside). The problem is that at the high temperatures that the core had reached at this stage, water molecules can “disassociate” into oxygen and hydrogen – an explosive mixture. And it did explode, outside the third containment, damaging the reactor building around. It was that sort of explosion, but inside the pressure vessel (because it was badly designed and not managed properly by the operators) that lead to the explosion of Chernobyl. This was never a risk at Fukushima. The problem of hydrogen-oxygen formation is one of the biggies when you design a power plant (if you are not Soviet, that is), so the reactor is build and operated in a way it cannot happen inside the containment. It happened outside, which was not intended but a possible scenario and OK, because it did not pose a risk for the containment.
So the pressure was under control, as steam was vented. Now, if you keep boiling your pot, the problem is that the water level will keep falling and falling. The core is covered by several meters of water in order to allow for some time to pass (hours, days) before it gets exposed. Once the rods start to be exposed at the top, the exposed parts will reach the critical temperature of 2200 °C after about 45 minutes. This is when the first containment, the Zircaloy tube, would fail.
And this started to happen. The cooling could not be restored before there was some (very limited, but still) damage to the casing of some of the fuel. The nuclear material itself was still intact, but the surrounding Zircaloy shell had started melting. What happened now is that some of the byproducts of the uranium decay – radioactive Cesium and Iodine – started to mix with the steam. The big problem, uranium, was still under control, because the uranium oxide rods were good until 3000 °C. It is confirmed that a very small amount of Cesium and Iodine was measured in the steam that was released into the atmosphere.
It seems this was the “go signal” for a major plan B. The small amounts of Cesium that were measured told the operators that the first containment on one of the rods somewhere was about to give. The Plan A had been to restore one of the regular cooling systems to the core. Why that failed is unclear. One plausible explanation is that the tsunami also took away / polluted all the clean water needed for the regular cooling systems.
The water used in the cooling system is very clean, demineralized (like distilled) water. The reason to use pure water is the above mentioned activation by the neutrons from the Uranium: Pure water does not get activated much, so stays practically radioactive-free. Dirt or salt in the water will absorb the neutrons quicker, becoming more radioactive. This has no effect whatsoever on the core – it does not care what it is cooled by. But it makes life more difficult for the operators and mechanics when they have to deal with activated (i.e. slightly radioactive) water.
In order to prevent a core meltdown, the operators started to use sea water to cool the core. I am not quite sure if they flooded our pressure cooker with it (the second containment), or if they flooded the third containment, immersing the pressure cooker. But that is not relevant for us.
The point is that the nuclear fuel has now been cooled down. Because the chain reaction has been stopped a long time ago, there is only very little residual heat being produced now. The large amount of cooling water that has been used is sufficient to take up that heat. Because it is a lot of water, the core does not produce sufficient heat any more to produce any significant pressure. Also, boric acid has been added to the seawater. Boric acid is “liquid control rod”. Whatever decay is still going on, the Boron will capture the neutrons and further speed up the cooling down of the core.
The plant came close to a core meltdown. Here is the worst-case scenario that was avoided: If the seawater could not have been used for treatment, the operators would have continued to vent the water steam to avoid pressure buildup. The third containment would then have been completely sealed to allow the core meltdown to happen without releasing radioactive material. After the meltdown, there would have been a waiting period for the intermediate radioactive materials to decay inside the reactor, and all radioactive particles to settle on a surface inside the containment. The cooling system would have been restored eventually, and the molten core cooled to a manageable temperature. The containment would have been cleaned up on the inside. Then a messy job of removing the molten core from the containment would have begun, packing the (now solid again) fuel bit by bit into transportation containers to be shipped to processing plants. Depending on the damage, the block of the plant would then either be repaired or dismantled.
・Some radiation was released when the pressure vessel was vented. All radioactive isotopes from the activated steam have gone (decayed). A very small amount of Cesium was released, as well as Iodine. If you were sitting on top of the plants’ chimney when they were venting, you should probably give up smoking to return to your former life expectancy. The Cesium and Iodine isotopes were carried out to the sea and will never be seen again.
・There was some limited damage to the first containment. That means that some amounts of radioactive Cesium and Iodine will also be released into the cooling water, but no Uranium or other nasty stuff (the Uranium oxide does not “dissolve” in the water). There are facilities for treating the cooling water inside the third containment. The radioactive Cesium and Iodine will be removed there and eventually stored as radioactive waste in terminal storage.
・The seawater used as cooling water will be activated to some degree. Because the control rods are fully inserted, the Uranium chain reaction is not happening. That means the “main” nuclear reaction is not happening, thus not contributing to the activation. The intermediate radioactive materials (Cesium and Iodine) are also almost gone at this stage, because the Uranium decay was stopped a long time ago. This further reduces the activation. The bottom line is that there will be some low level of activation of the seawater, which will also be removed by the treatment facilities.
・I believe the most significant problem will be a prolonged power shortage. About half of Japan’s nuclear reactors will probably have to be inspected, reducing the nation’s power generating capacity by 15%. This will probably be covered by running gas power plants that are usually only used for peak loads to cover some of the base load as well. That will increase your electricity bill, as well as lead to potential power shortages during peak demand, in Japan.