「coins」を含む日記 RSS

はてなキーワード: coinsとは




Ghost Leg (Chinese: 畫鬼腳), known in Japan as Amidakuji (阿弥陀籤, "Amida lottery", so named because the paper was folded into a fan shape resembling Amida's halo[1]) or in Korea as Sadaritagi (사다리타기, literally "ladder climbing")


The 1981 arcade game Amidar programmed by Konami and published by Stern used the same lattice as a maze. The game even took its name from Amidakuji and most of the enemy movement conformed to the lot drawing game's rules

An early Sega Master System game called Psycho Fox uses the mechanics of an Amidakuji board as a means to bet a bag of coins on a chance at a prize at the top of the screen. Later Sega Genesis games based on the same game concept DecapAttack and its Japanese predecessor "Magical Hat no Buttobi Tabo! Daibōken" follow the same game mechanics, including the Amidakuji bonus levels.

Super Mario Land 2: 6 Golden Coins features an Amidakuji-style bonus game that rewards the player with a power-up. New Super Mario Bros. and Wario: Master of Disguise feature an Amidakuji-style minigame in which the player uses the stylus to trace lines that will lead the character down the right path.

In Mario Party there is a mini game where one of the four players pours money into an Amidakuji made out of pipes. The goal is to try to choose the path leading to the character controlled by the player.

The BoSpider in Mega Man X and Maverick Hunter X descends onto the player via an Amidakuji path.

In Super Monkey Ball 2, there is a level in the Advanced-Extra difficulty named "Amida Lot" (Advanced-EX 7) that features a floor resembling an Amidakuji board, which bumper travels around the way and may knock off the player if they happen to hit them. The goal only travels through one of the vertical lines and the player must reach the goal using the ghost legs while avoiding the bumpers to not fall out.

In WarioWare, Inc.: Mega Microgames!, the microgame "Noodle Cup" features Amidakuji-style gameplay.

Azalea Gym in Pokémon HeartGold and SoulSilver was redesigned with an Amidakuji-based system of carts to cross. The correct choices lead to the gym leader; the wrong ones lead to other trainers to fight.

Phantasy Star Online 2 uses the principle of Amidakuji for a randomly appearing bomb-defusing minigame. One must trace an Amidakuji path around each bomb to determine which button defuses it; incorrect selections knock players away for a few seconds, wasting time.

In the manga Liar Game (vol 17), an Amidakuji is used for determinate the rank of each participant to the penultimate stage of the game.

In the Japanese drama Don Quixote (episode 10), the character Shirota (Shota Matsuda) uses Amidakuji to help decide between candidate families for an adoption.

In the anime Cardcaptor Sakura (episode 41), the character Kaho Mizuki, Sakura's teacher, uses Amidakuji in order to choose which student will play each role in a certain school play.

In the anime Magic Kyun Renassiance (episode 10), the characters used Amidakuji to determine which rooms they'd get while at the villa after the Art Session.

The Japanese band "SCANDAL" released "A.M.D.K.J." (January 2020) and music video— https://www.scandal-heaven.com/t14860-a-m-d-k-j-lyrics










長財布、スマホ、小ポーチハンカチ&ティッシュ 入ればOK




Types of digital cameras

Digital cameras are made in a wide range of sizes, prices and capabilities. The majority are camera phones, operated as a mobile application through the cellphone menu. Professional photographers and many amateurs use larger, more expensive digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR) for their greater versatility. Between these extremes lie digital compact cameras and bridge digital cameras that "bridge" the gap between amateur and professional cameras. Specialized cameras including multispectral imaging equipment and astrographs continue to serve the scientific, military, medical and other special purposes for which digital photography was invented.

[edit]Compact digital cameras

Subcompact with lens assembly retracted

Compact cameras are designed to be tiny and portable and are particularly suitable for casual and "snapshot" uses. Hence, they are also called point-and-shoot cameras. The smallest, generally less than 20 mm thick, are described as subcompacts or "ultra-compacts" and some are nearly credit card size.[2]

Most, apart from ruggedized or water-resistant models, incorporate a retractable lens assembly allowing a thin camera to have a moderately long focal length and thus fully exploit an image sensor larger than that on a camera phone, and a mechanized lens cap to cover the lens when retracted. The retracted and capped lens is protected from keys, coins and other hard objects, thus making it a thin, pocketable package. Subcompacts commonly have one lug and a short wrist strap which aids extraction from a pocket, while thicker compacts may have two lugs for attaching a neck strap.

Compact cameras are usually designed to be easy to use, sacrificing advanced features and picture quality for compactness and simplicity; images can usually only be stored using lossy compression (JPEG). Most have a built-in flash usually of low power, sufficient for nearby subjects. Live preview is almost always used to frame the photo. Most have limited motion picture capability. Compacts often have macro capability and zoom lenses but the zoom range is usually less than for bridge and DSLR cameras. Generally a contrast-detect autofocus system, using the image data from the live preview feed of the main imager, focuses the lens.

Typically, these cameras incorporate a nearly silent leaf shutter into their lenses.

For lower cost and smaller size, these cameras typically use image sensors with a diagonal of approximately 6 mm, corresponding to a crop factor around 6. This gives them weaker low-light performance, greater depth of field, generally closer focusing ability, and smaller components than cameras using larger sensors.

Starting in 2011, some compact digital cameras can take 3D still photos. These 3D compact stereo cameras can capture 3D panoramic photos for play back on a 3D TV.[3] Some of these are rugged and waterproof, and some have GPS, compass, barometer and altimeter. [4]

[edit]Bridge cameras

Sony DSC-H2

Main article: Bridge camera

Bridge are higher-end digital cameras that physically and ergonomically resemble DSLRs and share with them some advanced features, but share with compacts the use of a fixed lens and a small sensor. Like compacts, most use live preview to frame the image. Their autofocus uses the same contrast-detect mechanism, but many bridge cameras have a manual focus mode, in some cases using a separate focus ring, for greater control. They originally "bridged" the gap between affordable point-and-shoot cameras and the then unaffordable earlier digital SLRs.

Due to the combination of big physical size but a small sensor, many of these cameras have very highly specified lenses with large zoom range and fast aperture, partially compensating for the inability to change lenses. On some, the lens qualifies as superzoom. To compensate for the lesser sensitivity of their small sensors, these cameras almost always include an image stabilization system to enable longer handheld exposures.

These cameras are sometimes marketed as and confused with digital SLR cameras since the appearance is similar. Bridge cameras lack the reflex viewing system of DSLRs, are usually fitted with fixed (non-interchangeable) lenses (although some have a lens thread to attach accessory wide-angle or telephoto converters), and can usually take movies with sound. The scene is composed by viewing either the liquid crystal display or the electronic viewfinder (EVF). Most have a longer shutter lag than a true dSLR, but they are capable of good image quality (with sufficient light) while being more compact and lighter than DSLRs. High-end models of this type have comparable resolutions to low and mid-range DSLRs. Many of these cameras can store images in a Raw image format, or processed and JPEG compressed, or both. The majority have a built-in flash similar to those found in DSLRs.

In bright sun, the quality difference between a good compact camera and a digital SLR is minimal but bridgecams are more portable, cost less and have a similar zoom ability to dSLR. Thus a Bridge camera may better suit outdoor daytime activities, except when seeking professional-quality photos.[5]

In low light conditions and/or at ISO equivalents above 800, most bridge cameras (or megazooms) lack in image quality when compared to even entry level DSLRs. However, they do have one major advantage: their much larger depth of field due to the small sensor as compared to a DSLR, allowing larger apertures with shorter exposure times.

A 3D Photo Mode was introduced in 2011, whereby the camera automatically takes a second image from a slightly different perspective and provides a standard .MPO file for stereo display. [6]

[edit]Mirrorless interchangeable-lens camera

Main article: Mirrorless interchangeable-lens camera

In late 2008, a new type of camera emerged, combining the larger sensors and interchangeable lenses of DSLRs with the live-preview viewing system of compact cameras, either through an electronic viewfinder or on the rear LCD. These are simpler and more compact than DSLRs due to the removal of the mirror box, and typically emulate the handling and ergonomics of either DSLRs or compacts. The system is used by Micro Four Thirds, borrowing components from the Four Thirds DSLR system.

[edit]Digital single lens reflex cameras

Cutaway of an Olympus E-30 DSLR

Main article: Digital single-lens reflex camera

Digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs) are digital cameras based on film single-lens reflex cameras (SLRs). They take their name from their unique viewing system, in which a mirror reflects light from the lens through a separate optical viewfinder. At the moment of exposure the mirror flips out of the way, making a distinctive "clack" sound and allowing light to fall on the imager.

Since no light reaches the imager during framing, autofocus is accomplished using specialized sensors in the mirror box itself. Most 21st century DSLRs also have a "live view" mode that emulates the live preview system of compact cameras, when selected.

These cameras have much larger sensors than the other types, typically 18 mm to 36 mm on the diagonal (crop factor 2, 1.6, or 1). This gives them superior low-light performance, less depth of field at a given aperture, and a larger size.

They make use of interchangeable lenses; each major DSLR manufacturer also sells a line of lenses specifically intended to be used on their cameras. This allows the user to select a lens designed for the application at hand: wide-angle, telephoto, low-light, etc. So each lens does not require its own shutter, DSLRs use a focal-plane shutter in front of the imager, behind the mirror.

[edit]Digital rangefinders

Main article: Rangefinder camera#Digital rangefinder

A rangefinder is a user-operated optical mechanism to measure subject distance once widely used on film cameras. Most digital cameras measure subject distance automatically using electro-optical techniques, but it is not customary to say that they have a rangefinder.

[edit]Line-scan camera systems

A line-scan camera is a camera device containing a line-scan image sensor chip, and a focusing mechanism. These cameras are almost solely used in industrial settings to capture an image of a constant stream of moving material. Unlike video cameras, line-scan cameras use a single row of pixel sensors, instead of a matrix of them. Data coming from the line-scan camera has a frequency, where the camera scans a line, waits, and repeats. The data coming from the line-scan camera is commonly processed by a computer, to collect the one-dimensional line data and to create a two-dimensional image. The collected two-dimensional image data is then processed by image-processing methods for industrial purposes.

Further information: Rotating line camera


Many devices include digital cameras built into or integrated into them. For example, mobile phones often include digital cameras; those that do are known as camera phones. Other small electronic devices (especially those used for communication) such as PDAs, laptops and BlackBerry devices often contain an integral digital camera, and most 21st century camcorders can also make still pictures.

Due to the limited storage capacity and general emphasis on convenience rather than image quality, almost all these integrated or converged devices store images in the lossy but compact JPEG file format.

Mobile phones incorporating digital cameras were introduced in Japan in 2001 by J-Phone. In 2003 camera phones outsold stand-alone digital cameras, and in 2006 they outsold all film-based cameras and digital cameras combined. These camera phones reached a billion devices sold in only five years, and by 2007 more than half of the installed base of all mobile phones were camera phones. Sales of separate cameras peaked in 2008. [7]

Integrated cameras tend to be at the very lowest end of the scale of digital cameras in technical specifications, such as resolution, optical quality, and ability to use accessories. With rapid development, however, the gap between mainstream compact digital cameras and camera phones is closing, and high-end camera phones are competitive with low-end stand-alone digital cameras of the same generation.


A Canon WP-1 waterproof 35 mm film camera

Waterproof digital cameras are digital cameras that can make pictures underwater. Waterproof housings have long been made but they cost almost as the cameras. Many waterproof digital cameras are shockproof and resistant to low temperatures; one of them is Canon PowerShot D10, one of the first underwater digital cameras.

These cameras become very popular during the holiday season, because many people want to save the best moments from their holidays at the seaside. Waterproof watches and mobile phones were produced earlier. Most makers of digital cameras also produce waterproof ones and every year they launch at least one new model, for example Sony, Olympus, Canon, Fuji.

Healthways Mako Shark, an early waterproof camera,[8] was launched in 1958 and cost around 25 dollars. It was a huge camera and pictures were black and white.






GCSE Science の問題

nature networkフォーラムをのぞいていたら、おもしろい問題が出されていた。

なんでもGCSE Scienceとかいうイギリスで16才くらいの学生がおこなう試験問題らしい。

問題) 月食がどのようにして起きるについて、以下のような考えを持っている人がいるとする。









GCSE Science (Edexcel, 2006)

Our moon seems to disappear during an eclipse. Some people say this is because an old lady covers the moon with her cloak.

She does this so that thieves cannot steal the shiny coins on the surface. Which of these would help scientists to prove or disprove this idea?

A) Collect evidence from people who believe the lady sees the thieves

B) Shout to the lady that the thieves are coming

C) Send a probe to the moon to search for coins

D) Look for fingerprints

ログイン ユーザー登録
ようこそ ゲスト さん