「the cell」を含む日記 RSS

はてなキーワード: the cellとは


What kind of batteries belong to the green environmental protection battery?

The green environmental protection battery is to point to in recent years has been put into use or are development, the development of kind of high performance, no pollution batteries. At present already use large nickel metal hydride battery, the lithium ion battery and is expanded use of mercury free alkaline battery manganese zinc and rechargeable batteries and is research and development of lithium or lithium ion plastic pack and fuel cells belong to this category. In addition, it is widely used and use of solar energy for photoelectric convert solar cell (also called photovoltaic power generation), can also be included in this category.

Nickel metal hydride battery (Ni-MH) and nickel cadmium battery (Ni-Cd) have the same working voltage (1.2 V), due to the adoption of rare earth alloy or TiNi alloy anode materials for the activity of hydrogen storage material, replacing the carcinogen cadmium, which not only makes this battery became a kind of green environmental protection battery, and make a battery of energy than increased nearly 40%, to 80-60 Wh/kg and 210-240 Wh/L. The battery is 90 s gradually realize industrialization PANASONIC VW-VBK360 Battery , and the first to use in the cell phone battery. At present although it on their dominance of the gradually be lithium ion battery replaced, but mobile phone applications in Europe and America, and its market share is still at about 50%.

The lithium ion battery (Li-ion) is by can make the lithium ion embedding and take off the carbon embedded as negative, reversible intercalated-li metal oxide as the positive (LiCoO2, LiNiO2 or LiMn2O4) and organic electrolyte constitute, the working voltage of 3.6 V, so a lithium-ion battery is equivalent to three cadmium nickel metal hydride battery or nickel. Thus the batteries than energy is the over 100 Wh/kg and 280 Wh/L, and considerably more than the nickel metal hydride battery than energy. In view of the above advantages, since the 1993-2000 in just a few years, its production and usage with extremely high speed growth.

Alkaline manganese zinc dry (alkaline) compared with ordinary dry cell size has higher capacity PANASONIC CGA-S005E Battery, and have high discharge current ability. In recent years has been used on mercury zinc powder, therefore make the battery become a green battery, and become the mainstream battery products, at present the alkaline xinmeng dry cell is still BP machine use most power supply. At the same time, the world is the battery charged on the sex, an American company has launched a charged battery alkali manganese, product and application of slow growth. Such batteries keep the battery discharge characteristics, but also can be recharged using a dozen times to hundreds of times (deep recharge cycles life of about 25 times).

Lithium plastic battery (LIP) is for lithium metal anode, conductive polymers of electrolyte for new battery, the energy than has reached 170 Wh/kg and 350 Wh/L. The lithium ion battery is will present plastic of organic lithium ion battery electrolyte stored in a polymer membrane, or use conductive polymer as electrolyte, make a battery in no free the electrolyte. Such batteries can use aluminum plastic composite membrane realize hot pressing encapsulation, with light weight, shape can be arbitrary change, safety better characteristics.

Fuel cells (FC) is a kind of use of fuel (such as hydrogen or contain fuel) and antioxidant (such as pure oxygen or the oxygen in air) for power generation device directly, because avoided the carnot cycle limit, this power unit is not only high efficiency (electrochemical reactions conversion efficiency can be as high as 40% or more), and no pollution discharge gas, so is the future of efficient and clean power generation method. Many companies at home and abroad are engaged in development for mobile phones, notebook computers, the PEM fuel cell, once put into application, and its economy benefit greatly.

Seal lead-acid battery is a kind of lead-acid batteries.

The following new green battery technology and related industry development is rapid.

1. Hydrogen storage material and nickel metal hydride Battery-the nimh batteries (PANASONIC CGA-S101E/1B Battery)

2. Lithium ion embedded material and liquid electrolyte of lithium ion battery

3. Polymer electrolyte of lithium battery or lithium ion battery

4. Zinc air battery and PEM fuel cell

In addition to the above, in view of the communication industry growth, China's battery industry is with extremely high speed to promote environmental protection mercury-free alkali manganese zinc original pool and rechargeable batteries and seal lead-acid battery technology development and application expansion market.


Article 14 the mobile phone will know the battery skills

If users want to prolong battery the efficient use of the time, in addition to the quality of the charger to have the guarantee, the right skills and charging is essential, because of low quality charger or wrong charging methods would affect battery time and life cycle, the following is about to charge skills:

1. The battery before they leave the factory, manufacturers were activated processing, and the charge, so the battery are more electricity, my friends say battery charging adjustment period in accordance with the time, standby still seriously insufficient, assuming that the battery is really quality goods battery of words, this kind of circumstance should extend the setting and then 3 ~ 5 times fully charge and discharge.

2. If new phone is lithium ion battery, so before 3 ~ 5 times charging commonly known as adjustment period, should be charged more than 14 hours, in order to ensure that the fully activate lithium ion activity. The lithium ion battery no memory effects, but have very strong sui sex, should give full activated PANASONIC CGR-D220 Battery, to guarantee the use of after can reach the right performance.

3. Some automation intelligent quick charger when instructions lights change, said only full of 90%. The charger will automatically change with slow charge will batteries. Best will use after batteries, otherwise, it will shorten use time.

4. Before charging and discharging lithium battery does not need special, but will not discharge damage to the battery. As far as possible when charging at the slow ChongChongDian, reduce the way quick charge; Time don't more than 24 hours. The battery after three to five times fully recharge cycles of internal after chemical will be all "activate" to achieve the best use effect.

5. Please use the original or the reputation of the good brand charger, li-ion battery to lithium battery charger with special, and follow the instructions, otherwise, it will damage to the battery, and even dangerous.

6. Have many users often in charge still leave her cell phone, actually such will be very easy to PANASONIC CGA-S101E/1B Battery damage the service life of the mobile phone, because in charge of the process, the circuit boards of mobile phone can calorific, if this time more exotic phone, may produce instant backflow current, internal parts to mobile phone damage.

7. The battery life depends on the number repeatedly charging and discharging, so should try to avoid more battery electric charge when, this will shorten battery life. Cell phone time more than 7 days, supposed to completely discharge the cell phone battery, enough electricity before use.

8. The cell phone battery have self-discharge, need not when the nimh batteries will press the residual capacity every day, about 1% of the discharge, lithium battery every day to 0.2% ~ 0.3% discharge. In for the battery, try to use the special socket, don't will the home appliance such as the Shared and the TV charger socket.

9. Though the phones in the network coverage area, but in the cell phone charge, cell phones have been unable to accept and call. At this time, can use of the mobile phone is not transfer function, will be transferred to the mobile phone side of fixed telephone in order to prevent calls lost, this kind of method for mobile phone is not in the network coverage of the area or weak signal and temporarily unable to the applicable also.

10. Don't will be exposed to high temperature or cold PANASONIC DMW-BCG10E Battery , as the dog, should not put the phone on the car, and the sun blazed through the; Or get air conditioning room, in air conditioning to be blown continuously place. When charging, the battery is a little heat is normal, but can't let it what the high temperature "suffer". In order to avoid the happening of this kind of circumstance, had better be in charge at room temperature, and don't cover anything on the mobile phone.

11. Nickel cadmium (N iCd) before the battery must ensure that the batteries are no electricity, recharging the battery must ensure that sufficient electricity after.

12. If the cell phone battery placed too long and not use, the best maintenance department to cell phones to the application for a live processing, also can use a constant dc voltage is the voltage adjustment for 5 ~ 6 V, current 500 ~ 600 mA reverse connect battery. Note that a touch namely release, the most repeated three times can, through such treatment after another, with the original adapter to "adaptation" charge.

13. Charge is not as long as possible, to no protection circuit batteries that should stop after charging, or the battery will with fever or overheating impact performance.

14. Lithium ion battery must choose special charger, otherwise may not reach the saturated state, affect their performance. Charging completes, should avoid to place in charger on more than 12 hours or more, long-term need not when should make a battery and cell phone separation.

How to use Digital camera battery

First the capacity of the battery life and said.

Battery capacity everybody can understand, is the capacity of the battery label printing! The greater the capacity to store electricity standby time more long more, but the battery life is put in charge of the circulation to describe, that is a charging a discharge for a cycle, now of the lithium ion battery general circulation 400 times the capacity of the nominal capacity is 50%-60%, professional predicate called attenuation rate, the capacity of the battery only nominal halfway through standby time and just bought at least by half, also is usually we the standby time behind mobile phone to the shorter and the last possible is a call to restart, it shows that capacity is too small, the battery with load ability is poor, and also to life! The above prove charging times and the battery life is to have a certain relationship! General filling a electric capacity will attenuation 1-5 ma (depending on the stand or fall of core).

Besides the new bought the phone charging time(PANASONIC DMW-BMB9 Battery)

General new buy the phone will be informed that the three twelve hours filling, must be finished filling again! The idea is to stay in about 98-2000, when most of the cell phone battery is nickel metal hydride battery, have memory effects! That is the nimh batteries in useless over electric power is charging, might remember situation, that didn't put out that part of it may be lost if not to do so might affect the battery of standby time, now a few call all the mobile phone use lithium ion battery now, does not exist have memory effects, say in the production of the battery will have at least 1-2 times charge-discharge, sold into our hands, the battery is activated, sure, twelve hours without charge, as for a few times before standby time slightly shorter that is normal, because the battery after a period of time capacity will have loss, filling put several recovery!

Besides charging methods (PANASONIC DMW-BCF10E Battery)

Normally will last one case electricity use up, cellular phone to start alarm can charge! Don't need to be automatic shutdown to filling! Because when the battery voltage alarm has been close to the automatic shutdown voltage! Charging tip can not only full! It need not long time filling, of course, have been filled, it doesn't matter, because the cell phone battery is protection board, full automatic stop after won't fill! But some fake except battery, a lot of false battery protection board is empty, doesn't work.


Types of digital cameras

Digital cameras are made in a wide range of sizes, prices and capabilities. The majority are camera phones, operated as a mobile application through the cellphone menu. Professional photographers and many amateurs use larger, more expensive digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR) for their greater versatility. Between these extremes lie digital compact cameras and bridge digital cameras that "bridge" the gap between amateur and professional cameras. Specialized cameras including multispectral imaging equipment and astrographs continue to serve the scientific, military, medical and other special purposes for which digital photography was invented.

[edit]Compact digital cameras

Subcompact with lens assembly retracted

Compact cameras are designed to be tiny and portable and are particularly suitable for casual and "snapshot" uses. Hence, they are also called point-and-shoot cameras. The smallest, generally less than 20 mm thick, are described as subcompacts or "ultra-compacts" and some are nearly credit card size.[2]

Most, apart from ruggedized or water-resistant models, incorporate a retractable lens assembly allowing a thin camera to have a moderately long focal length and thus fully exploit an image sensor larger than that on a camera phone, and a mechanized lens cap to cover the lens when retracted. The retracted and capped lens is protected from keys, coins and other hard objects, thus making it a thin, pocketable package. Subcompacts commonly have one lug and a short wrist strap which aids extraction from a pocket, while thicker compacts may have two lugs for attaching a neck strap.

Compact cameras are usually designed to be easy to use, sacrificing advanced features and picture quality for compactness and simplicity; images can usually only be stored using lossy compression (JPEG). Most have a built-in flash usually of low power, sufficient for nearby subjects. Live preview is almost always used to frame the photo. Most have limited motion picture capability. Compacts often have macro capability and zoom lenses but the zoom range is usually less than for bridge and DSLR cameras. Generally a contrast-detect autofocus system, using the image data from the live preview feed of the main imager, focuses the lens.

Typically, these cameras incorporate a nearly silent leaf shutter into their lenses.

For lower cost and smaller size, these cameras typically use image sensors with a diagonal of approximately 6 mm, corresponding to a crop factor around 6. This gives them weaker low-light performance, greater depth of field, generally closer focusing ability, and smaller components than cameras using larger sensors.

Starting in 2011, some compact digital cameras can take 3D still photos. These 3D compact stereo cameras can capture 3D panoramic photos for play back on a 3D TV.[3] Some of these are rugged and waterproof, and some have GPS, compass, barometer and altimeter. [4]

[edit]Bridge cameras

Sony DSC-H2

Main article: Bridge camera

Bridge are higher-end digital cameras that physically and ergonomically resemble DSLRs and share with them some advanced features, but share with compacts the use of a fixed lens and a small sensor. Like compacts, most use live preview to frame the image. Their autofocus uses the same contrast-detect mechanism, but many bridge cameras have a manual focus mode, in some cases using a separate focus ring, for greater control. They originally "bridged" the gap between affordable point-and-shoot cameras and the then unaffordable earlier digital SLRs.

Due to the combination of big physical size but a small sensor, many of these cameras have very highly specified lenses with large zoom range and fast aperture, partially compensating for the inability to change lenses. On some, the lens qualifies as superzoom. To compensate for the lesser sensitivity of their small sensors, these cameras almost always include an image stabilization system to enable longer handheld exposures.

These cameras are sometimes marketed as and confused with digital SLR cameras since the appearance is similar. Bridge cameras lack the reflex viewing system of DSLRs, are usually fitted with fixed (non-interchangeable) lenses (although some have a lens thread to attach accessory wide-angle or telephoto converters), and can usually take movies with sound. The scene is composed by viewing either the liquid crystal display or the electronic viewfinder (EVF). Most have a longer shutter lag than a true dSLR, but they are capable of good image quality (with sufficient light) while being more compact and lighter than DSLRs. High-end models of this type have comparable resolutions to low and mid-range DSLRs. Many of these cameras can store images in a Raw image format, or processed and JPEG compressed, or both. The majority have a built-in flash similar to those found in DSLRs.

In bright sun, the quality difference between a good compact camera and a digital SLR is minimal but bridgecams are more portable, cost less and have a similar zoom ability to dSLR. Thus a Bridge camera may better suit outdoor daytime activities, except when seeking professional-quality photos.[5]

In low light conditions and/or at ISO equivalents above 800, most bridge cameras (or megazooms) lack in image quality when compared to even entry level DSLRs. However, they do have one major advantage: their much larger depth of field due to the small sensor as compared to a DSLR, allowing larger apertures with shorter exposure times.

A 3D Photo Mode was introduced in 2011, whereby the camera automatically takes a second image from a slightly different perspective and provides a standard .MPO file for stereo display. [6]

[edit]Mirrorless interchangeable-lens camera

Main article: Mirrorless interchangeable-lens camera

In late 2008, a new type of camera emerged, combining the larger sensors and interchangeable lenses of DSLRs with the live-preview viewing system of compact cameras, either through an electronic viewfinder or on the rear LCD. These are simpler and more compact than DSLRs due to the removal of the mirror box, and typically emulate the handling and ergonomics of either DSLRs or compacts. The system is used by Micro Four Thirds, borrowing components from the Four Thirds DSLR system.

[edit]Digital single lens reflex cameras

Cutaway of an Olympus E-30 DSLR

Main article: Digital single-lens reflex camera

Digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs) are digital cameras based on film single-lens reflex cameras (SLRs). They take their name from their unique viewing system, in which a mirror reflects light from the lens through a separate optical viewfinder. At the moment of exposure the mirror flips out of the way, making a distinctive "clack" sound and allowing light to fall on the imager.

Since no light reaches the imager during framing, autofocus is accomplished using specialized sensors in the mirror box itself. Most 21st century DSLRs also have a "live view" mode that emulates the live preview system of compact cameras, when selected.

These cameras have much larger sensors than the other types, typically 18 mm to 36 mm on the diagonal (crop factor 2, 1.6, or 1). This gives them superior low-light performance, less depth of field at a given aperture, and a larger size.

They make use of interchangeable lenses; each major DSLR manufacturer also sells a line of lenses specifically intended to be used on their cameras. This allows the user to select a lens designed for the application at hand: wide-angle, telephoto, low-light, etc. So each lens does not require its own shutter, DSLRs use a focal-plane shutter in front of the imager, behind the mirror.

[edit]Digital rangefinders

Main article: Rangefinder camera#Digital rangefinder

A rangefinder is a user-operated optical mechanism to measure subject distance once widely used on film cameras. Most digital cameras measure subject distance automatically using electro-optical techniques, but it is not customary to say that they have a rangefinder.

[edit]Line-scan camera systems

A line-scan camera is a camera device containing a line-scan image sensor chip, and a focusing mechanism. These cameras are almost solely used in industrial settings to capture an image of a constant stream of moving material. Unlike video cameras, line-scan cameras use a single row of pixel sensors, instead of a matrix of them. Data coming from the line-scan camera has a frequency, where the camera scans a line, waits, and repeats. The data coming from the line-scan camera is commonly processed by a computer, to collect the one-dimensional line data and to create a two-dimensional image. The collected two-dimensional image data is then processed by image-processing methods for industrial purposes.

Further information: Rotating line camera


Many devices include digital cameras built into or integrated into them. For example, mobile phones often include digital cameras; those that do are known as camera phones. Other small electronic devices (especially those used for communication) such as PDAs, laptops and BlackBerry devices often contain an integral digital camera, and most 21st century camcorders can also make still pictures.

Due to the limited storage capacity and general emphasis on convenience rather than image quality, almost all these integrated or converged devices store images in the lossy but compact JPEG file format.

Mobile phones incorporating digital cameras were introduced in Japan in 2001 by J-Phone. In 2003 camera phones outsold stand-alone digital cameras, and in 2006 they outsold all film-based cameras and digital cameras combined. These camera phones reached a billion devices sold in only five years, and by 2007 more than half of the installed base of all mobile phones were camera phones. Sales of separate cameras peaked in 2008. [7]

Integrated cameras tend to be at the very lowest end of the scale of digital cameras in technical specifications, such as resolution, optical quality, and ability to use accessories. With rapid development, however, the gap between mainstream compact digital cameras and camera phones is closing, and high-end camera phones are competitive with low-end stand-alone digital cameras of the same generation.


A Canon WP-1 waterproof 35 mm film camera

Waterproof digital cameras are digital cameras that can make pictures underwater. Waterproof housings have long been made but they cost almost as the cameras. Many waterproof digital cameras are shockproof and resistant to low temperatures; one of them is Canon PowerShot D10, one of the first underwater digital cameras.

These cameras become very popular during the holiday season, because many people want to save the best moments from their holidays at the seaside. Waterproof watches and mobile phones were produced earlier. Most makers of digital cameras also produce waterproof ones and every year they launch at least one new model, for example Sony, Olympus, Canon, Fuji.

Healthways Mako Shark, an early waterproof camera,[8] was launched in 1958 and cost around 25 dollars. It was a huge camera and pictures were black and white.







[Defend Japan]

Very easy work only to operate the cellular phone sitting on the sofa.

Place : "Child treatment application window" at public office.

Working hours : Flex time system.

Content : You watch the "Child treatment application window". If there is an applicant who cannot present the foreign resident' registration card, You take the person's photograph and notify the police.

Reward : When the object person is an illegal, you can obtain the reward. 1000 - 50,000 yen.

Comment : This honorable work prevents the tax from flowing out outside the country.


Place, Working hours : same as above.

Content : If applicant's nationality is China and if target are two or more children, you may inform Chinese Embassy.

Reward : You cannot obtain the reward, but you can decrease the waste of the tax.

Comment : You may prevents inapposite application.














仔細に文系 (特に法)学生本棚とか見てみると、これがもう滑稽なんだwwwwwww




続いて 何度も読んだ形跡のある伊藤柴田司法試験論文対策即席要点集(笑)。

お前サル かよ、それでも人間かよ、って問い詰めたくなったね(苦笑)。










スティグリッツ経済学 (笑)(しかも原文じゃなくて翻訳






トクヴィル(笑)大江 健三郎(笑)コーポレート・ファイナンス(笑)ドストエフスキー文庫(笑)西尾行政学(笑)

柄谷行人文庫(笑)フロイトの技法(笑)Yale Law Journal(笑)ハンナ・アーレント(笑)浅田彰(笑)『構造と力』(笑)




女子大生(特に法)が読む雑誌と大差ないMarie Claire(笑)

magazine litteraire(笑) Cosmopolitan(笑)Critical Inquiry(笑)

Le Monde(笑)The London Economist(笑) American Economic Review(笑)

Fortune(笑)Foreign Affairs(笑)Yale Law & Policy Review(笑)

The New England Journal of Medicine、Michelin(笑)


他にも数百冊 持っていたようだがあとは推して知るべし。





ハーバードビジネス・ レヴュー(笑)





ま、予想通りだけど、杉浦・ 解析入門(高校4年生の一般教養にはいいかもね)

岩波講座・現代数学の展開 (なぜかモジュライ理論、Lie環、Weil予想、コホモロジーw)


The Cell教育ママに 買わされた赤い電話帳ね)





ファインマン 物理学講義(笑)












アーカイブ ヘルプ
ログイン ユーザー登録
ようこそ ゲスト さん