#3) "There are summaries at the beginning of the first three chapters"
There were no survivors, officials say.
'Flying to the end'
Digital cameras are made in a wide range of sizes, prices and capabilities. The majority are camera phones, operated as a mobile application through the cellphone menu. Professional photographers and many amateurs use larger, more expensive digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR) for their greater versatility. Between these extremes lie digital compact cameras and bridge digital cameras that "bridge" the gap between amateur and professional cameras. Specialized cameras including multispectral imaging equipment and astrographs continue to serve the scientific, military, medical and other special purposes for which digital photography was invented.
Compact cameras are designed to be tiny and portable and are particularly suitable for casual and "snapshot" uses. Hence, they are also called point-and-shoot cameras. The smallest, generally less than 20 mm thick, are described as subcompacts or "ultra-compacts" and some are nearly credit card size.
Most, apart from ruggedized or water-resistant models, incorporate a retractable lens assembly allowing a thin camera to have a moderately long focal length and thus fully exploit an image sensor larger than that on a camera phone, and a mechanized lens cap to cover the lens when retracted. The retracted and capped lens is protected from keys, coins and other hard objects, thus making it a thin, pocketable package. Subcompacts commonly have one lug and a short wrist strap which aids extraction from a pocket, while thicker compacts may have two lugs for attaching a neck strap.
Compact cameras are usually designed to be easy to use, sacrificing advanced features and picture quality for compactness and simplicity; images can usually only be stored using lossy compression (JPEG). Most have a built-in flash usually of low power, sufficient for nearby subjects. Live preview is almost always used to frame the photo. Most have limited motion picture capability. Compacts often have macro capability and zoom lenses but the zoom range is usually less than for bridge and DSLR cameras. Generally a contrast-detect autofocus system, using the image data from the live preview feed of the main imager, focuses the lens.
For lower cost and smaller size, these cameras typically use image sensors with a diagonal of approximately 6 mm, corresponding to a crop factor around 6. This gives them weaker low-light performance, greater depth of field, generally closer focusing ability, and smaller components than cameras using larger sensors.
Starting in 2011, some compact digital cameras can take 3D still photos. These 3D compact stereo cameras can capture 3D panoramic photos for play back on a 3D TV. Some of these are rugged and waterproof, and some have GPS, compass, barometer and altimeter. 
Main article: Bridge camera
Bridge are higher-end digital cameras that physically and ergonomically resemble DSLRs and share with them some advanced features, but share with compacts the use of a fixed lens and a small sensor. Like compacts, most use live preview to frame the image. Their autofocus uses the same contrast-detect mechanism, but many bridge cameras have a manual focus mode, in some cases using a separate focus ring, for greater control. They originally "bridged" the gap between affordable point-and-shoot cameras and the then unaffordable earlier digital SLRs.
Due to the combination of big physical size but a small sensor, many of these cameras have very highly specified lenses with large zoom range and fast aperture, partially compensating for the inability to change lenses. On some, the lens qualifies as superzoom. To compensate for the lesser sensitivity of their small sensors, these cameras almost always include an image stabilization system to enable longer handheld exposures.
These cameras are sometimes marketed as and confused with digital SLR cameras since the appearance is similar. Bridge cameras lack the reflex viewing system of DSLRs, are usually fitted with fixed (non-interchangeable) lenses (although some have a lens thread to attach accessory wide-angle or telephoto converters), and can usually take movies with sound. The scene is composed by viewing either the liquid crystal display or the electronic viewfinder (EVF). Most have a longer shutter lag than a true dSLR, but they are capable of good image quality (with sufficient light) while being more compact and lighter than DSLRs. High-end models of this type have comparable resolutions to low and mid-range DSLRs. Many of these cameras can store images in a Raw image format, or processed and JPEG compressed, or both. The majority have a built-in flash similar to those found in DSLRs.
In bright sun, the quality difference between a good compact camera and a digital SLR is minimal but bridgecams are more portable, cost less and have a similar zoom ability to dSLR. Thus a Bridge camera may better suit outdoor daytime activities, except when seeking professional-quality photos.
In low light conditions and/or at ISO equivalents above 800, most bridge cameras (or megazooms) lack in image quality when compared to even entry level DSLRs. However, they do have one major advantage: their much larger depth of field due to the small sensor as compared to a DSLR, allowing larger apertures with shorter exposure times.
In late 2008, a new type of camera emerged, combining the larger sensors and interchangeable lenses of DSLRs with the live-preview viewing system of compact cameras, either through an electronic viewfinder or on the rear LCD. These are simpler and more compact than DSLRs due to the removal of the mirror box, and typically emulate the handling and ergonomics of either DSLRs or compacts. The system is used by Micro Four Thirds, borrowing components from the Four Thirds DSLR system.
Main article: Digital single-lens reflex camera
Digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs) are digital cameras based on film single-lens reflex cameras (SLRs). They take their name from their unique viewing system, in which a mirror reflects light from the lens through a separate optical viewfinder. At the moment of exposure the mirror flips out of the way, making a distinctive "clack" sound and allowing light to fall on the imager.
Since no light reaches the imager during framing, autofocus is accomplished using specialized sensors in the mirror box itself. Most 21st century DSLRs also have a "live view" mode that emulates the live preview system of compact cameras, when selected.
These cameras have much larger sensors than the other types, typically 18 mm to 36 mm on the diagonal (crop factor 2, 1.6, or 1). This gives them superior low-light performance, less depth of field at a given aperture, and a larger size.
They make use of interchangeable lenses; each major DSLR manufacturer also sells a line of lenses specifically intended to be used on their cameras. This allows the user to select a lens designed for the application at hand: wide-angle, telephoto, low-light, etc. So each lens does not require its own shutter, DSLRs use a focal-plane shutter in front of the imager, behind the mirror.
Main article: Rangefinder camera#Digital rangefinder
A rangefinder is a user-operated optical mechanism to measure subject distance once widely used on film cameras. Most digital cameras measure subject distance automatically using electro-optical techniques, but it is not customary to say that they have a rangefinder.
A line-scan camera is a camera device containing a line-scan image sensor chip, and a focusing mechanism. These cameras are almost solely used in industrial settings to capture an image of a constant stream of moving material. Unlike video cameras, line-scan cameras use a single row of pixel sensors, instead of a matrix of them. Data coming from the line-scan camera has a frequency, where the camera scans a line, waits, and repeats. The data coming from the line-scan camera is commonly processed by a computer, to collect the one-dimensional line data and to create a two-dimensional image. The collected two-dimensional image data is then processed by image-processing methods for industrial purposes.
Many devices include digital cameras built into or integrated into them. For example, mobile phones often include digital cameras; those that do are known as camera phones. Other small electronic devices (especially those used for communication) such as PDAs, laptops and BlackBerry devices often contain an integral digital camera, and most 21st century camcorders can also make still pictures.
Due to the limited storage capacity and general emphasis on convenience rather than image quality, almost all these integrated or converged devices store images in the lossy but compact JPEG file format.
Mobile phones incorporating digital cameras were introduced in Japan in 2001 by J-Phone. In 2003 camera phones outsold stand-alone digital cameras, and in 2006 they outsold all film-based cameras and digital cameras combined. These camera phones reached a billion devices sold in only five years, and by 2007 more than half of the installed base of all mobile phones were camera phones. Sales of separate cameras peaked in 2008. 
Integrated cameras tend to be at the very lowest end of the scale of digital cameras in technical specifications, such as resolution, optical quality, and ability to use accessories. With rapid development, however, the gap between mainstream compact digital cameras and camera phones is closing, and high-end camera phones are competitive with low-end stand-alone digital cameras of the same generation.
Waterproof digital cameras are digital cameras that can make pictures underwater. Waterproof housings have long been made but they cost almost as the cameras. Many waterproof digital cameras are shockproof and resistant to low temperatures; one of them is Canon PowerShot D10, one of the first underwater digital cameras.
These cameras become very popular during the holiday season, because many people want to save the best moments from their holidays at the seaside. Waterproof watches and mobile phones were produced earlier. Most makers of digital cameras also produce waterproof ones and every year they launch at least one new model, for example Sony, Olympus, Canon, Fuji.
According to someone's comment I heard outside of the box, a tiny bottle containing deadly poison is located in this box. Although the bottle is completely sealed, a hammer is positioned in the vicinity of the bottle. And they said the hammer would fall down at a certain time.
When is "the certain time"? I don't know. In this very moment? Or distant future? Possibly, it already has come (I don't want to think about it). No one can affect the hammer. As an independent event, it will fall down with probability 50%. The probability is exactly 50%. Possibly, the bottle may be broken, or may not. About myself, dead, or, alive.
It is impossible for me to avoid having a furious indignation. My life, the most important issue for me, is completely away from me, and is solely dependent on the simple figure, FIFTY PERCENT! Too much terrible.
Visual perception. The box is completely shielded from any light. It's for avoiding me from finding and destroying the bottle and apparatus. Complete darkness. I am in the total darkness. Thus, now I can’t see even the outline of myself. Possibly it sounds strange, the darkness makes me have a doubt about the existence of my body itself.
Acoustic perception. Maybe, from the reason I mentioned above, a perfect sound insulation is used. I can’t hear even the voice of my own. I don't know the mechanism. In the first place, as I can’t see anything, how can I investigate it? So, this is only a speculation, possibly, my drum membranes were damaged before enclosure in this box, or, some special material is used for the wall of the box.
As if further confirmation are needed, a huge fatigue weighing heavily upon me is another shackle for me. It seems that they gave me some kind of muscle relaxant to avoid me from struggling. As I can’t change from the same posture, my tactile perception is almost paralyzed.
No light. No sound. Smell and taste are unreliable. Tactile perception is in malfunction. I am like a puppet. All the five senses are out of control of mine. Too much cruel. Perfect shackles. I wish if they had given a sleeping medicine. I feel I am in agony without any external injury. My life, my existence itself, is completely ignored. Such a humiliation keeps my sanity. Only such a humiliation can.
The right to control the life and death of myself is completely deprived. I hate such situation. The core determinant of the continuity of my life is completely dependent upon, solely upon, a pure probability. Completely away from anyone's will. I hate it, again, I hate it!
I am lonely. Am I feeling empty and flat? Difficult to avoid sobbing? No. My loneliness is much deeper. I am in a sea of void. I am alone. Completely alone. As an orphan, I was thrown into this endless darkness. I am quivering in the absolute zero.
There is no perspective in this box. Only the darkness is here. I can’t feel the bottle and the hammer. I can’t feel the wall, the bottom, and the ceiling neither. They should be there. But all the five senses of mine are deprived. I feel like there is nothing. While those things have some meanings.
Speaking honestly, I am not so sure I am in a box. I am sure that what I am exists. I am thinking. I am fantasizing. It is the evidence showing the uniqueness of mine, which is called the ego or the consciousness or the mind, is solid. But, is the uniqueness is truly enclosed in the box? Is it possible that it is floating in another space? I can’t eliminate such doubts.
In addition to that, I am not so sure that I am truly alive. I don't have any way to confirm such a simple thing. Possibly, the 50% probability has already passed beyond me. Maybe I am already dead. I am still alive, maybe. Injected with muscle relaxant, shallow breathes, weak heartbeats. Or, cessation of all of them, simply leaving meat bolus.
I am deprived of any capability of controlling my own body. Who can say that my mind resides in the body continuing vital activities? The five senses have been poisoned with the total darkness. They can’t function as sensory organs. I don't have any chance to know the truth. Possibly, any supposition is fabricated by myself. The situation surrounding me and the uniqueness of myself are components of programmed role-play, possibly.
I wish someone could find me. I wish someone could open the box and observe how I am, and determine what I am. There is not enough power inside me to do so. All I can do is to continue to quiver in the loneliness.
At the same time, longing produces shadow. If the box is opened, I will be found and observed. As a result, what I am will be determined. To tell the truth, I can’t look away from the fact I am anxious about being determined.
Although I am unable to determine whether I am alive or dead by myself, I am afraid of the death. I am afraid that I am determined as a dead. I can’t accept. Still I can’t feel, I can’t imagine the death as a specific phenomenon. Probably, that is why I am afraid of death.
No, it should not be restricted to me. King of virtue. Deadly murderer. Regular folks. All the same. Maybe, the elder people or patients of bad disease could have some imagination sufficiently close to the true death. But, even so, it is impossible to know the specific experience of death.
In the end, death is the final destination with overwhelming significance. The time and the consciousness have an absolute irreversibility. Death also has the absoluteness which can’t be changed. Even if it is a ritual pass point or an outstanding impressive event.
Myself, the mind of mine here is, will be vanished at the moment at which how I am is determined. If they deprive the lukewarm water, in which I can’t feel the temperature, it is impossible for me to avoid exposing myself to the air.
The current existence of myself is like a tiny, tiny illusion standing on an endless point. Not larger than that. Not smaller than that. Not longer than that. Not shorter than that. No expansion. No shrinkage. Standing upon a unique single point. It is mathematically correct. I am something like a ghost staying upon such a point, having confusion about identity of myself.
The point exists at every position on a plane of coordinates, at the same time, not existing at a certain position. If a certain event occurs, on that moment, it will converge me to a single point among all the space-times, in which the event has occurred, as if having me step off a bus. Without any concern. Even if the point and I have been a one. The illusion, which has stayed in such a point, has possibilities of being real and being vanished like a mist, to an equal degree.
Now, I am existing in every time-space, I have every nature. At the same time, I am suffering from the loneliness that I am away from every nature. I wish someone can find me. At the same time, I am so anxious that where I will be, and that how I will be at that moment.
The show @ Saitama Super Arena was absolutely incredible...3 hours long! It was a real mix of J-pop, symphonic, musician's music (jazz-rock, funk, etc) and beautiful ballads. I sang The Garden Of Everything duet w/ Maya Sakamoto - @ rehearsals I was having a rough time memorizing the crazy words (even more trippy than Hendrix or Lennon) but in the end I nailed it. When I did "Could You Bite The Hand" the crowd went nuts clapping in time throughout the song, just my acoustic guitar and 17,000 people! It was the biggest crowd I've ever "fronted" before - what a rush man. When I got to Call Me, Call Me they were like putty in my hands. Later in the show I came back and did a killer version of Rain as a duet w/ Mai Yamane. It was really good to see everyone again....I only wish we could do this more often.
The 1st rehearsal was a trip, lots of staging, etc. The first time I appear onstage I perform 3 songs in a row starting with a duet w/ Maya Sakamoto "The Garden Of Everything". We start out on opposite ends of a long stage and move toward each other by the end. As I reach the other side of the stage with my wireless microphone, an acoustic guitar and mic stand rise up from out of the floor, I strap on the guitar and do "Could You Bite The Hand?" - When I'm done I set the guitar back down, it disappears into the floor with the mic stand and I finish with "Call Me, Call Me" backed by the Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra. Pretty Awesome. Later in the show I come back for a duet of "Rain" with Mai Yamane and back her up on "Gonna Knock A Little Harder". It's gonna be an amazing show!
Happy July 4th! I am just now waking up in Tokyo. On the plane there were many people wearing surgical masks and constantly washing with Purell. It was a 12 hour flight so I slept a bit, worked on learning the words for Yoko's concert that I'm singing on here and watched some movies/tv. Typical boring flight. When I got in to Narita airport my contact, Cherry met me and took me to where I"m staying - Hotel Sunroute Plaza in Shinjuku section of Tokyo. After I cleaned up we went out for something to eat and although I had my heart set on sushi she took me to a place called Momma's - a homestyle Japanese place that serves little dishes of different stuff, like their version of tapas. Anyway, I did have some octopus sashimi...but also uni flavored tofu, raw scallop and a strange salad with lettuce, red pepper raw tuna & octopus, raisins, cashews & cheese. When I got back to the hotel and passed out right after. I just awoke to white skies and bizzare shaped buildings outside my window. Now I'm off to have an equally adventurous breakfast...