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はてなキーワード: needsとは

2019-01-20

米国は弱さに非寛容。メイクは「彼女の選択」

成長した女性男性少女少年のように振る舞うことは仕事での信頼性を損なう

と言うのがアメリカの主流の印象。少なくともネット映画の中では

例えば、女の子のように声を高く喋る方々に対しては、

How many of us gain psychological safety while sacrificing credibility at work


2. To stave off assertive input from others.

When a woman makes herself sound younger and more vulnerable, she is broadcasting to her colleagues, direct reports, clients and supervisors that she can't or won't defend herself, so don't be tough on her.

Who wants to be the big bad wolf who makes a woman cry at work?

She is, in essence, protecting herself from challenging conversations, negative performance feedback, and difficult news -- all of which every leader needs to engage in in order to grow and develop.

By shielding herself from the tough stuff in the short-term, she is putting up a barrier to her long-term career development.


[引用]

https://www.google.co.jp/amp/s/www.psychologytoday.com/intl/blog/speak-easy/201708/why-some-grown-women-sound-girls%3famp

と、「自分自身女の子のように弱く見せることで、厳しさや批判から身を守り、仕事での信頼性犠牲にし、自らキャリア開発障壁を作っている 」と バッサリ

なんでもプライベートボイストレーナーなる理想的な声の出し方をトレー二ングする職業の方々おり、それなりに需要があるそうな

女でこれなら、男で声が高いヤツは射殺されるんじゃないだろうか?ミックスボイスとか両声類とか言ってる場合じゃねぇわな、本題

じゃあ童顔メイク(目を大きく見せたり敢えて幼く可愛く見せるメイク)はしないの?

・するみたいよ

ドールメイク(ドーリーメイク)

幼さ(=弱さ)はダメなのにドールメイクするの?

バービー基準なのかお目目大きくでもなんか強そう

最大限に日本風なツーサイドのロリキャラ(ピンクベース)が元ネタ※でもこんな感じ

■Babydoll Sucker Punch - Makeup Tutorial
https://youtu.be/kyMzbrJVYpw
https://youtu.be/PMyxqtTj6AE


元ネタ・・・童顔丸顔のエミリー・ブラウニングの出演の米映画、「Sucker Punch」(邦題エンジェルウォーズ) 寺田克也も参加している https://youtu.be/GVVYB8gaSqc

日本風ではなく、完全に日本文脈のkawaii メイクしている人もいるが、レアキャラ日本オタク

米国発で適当動画が見つからなかったので他のところから

Japanese Makeup Look, Haul and Chat
https://youtu.be/Yj792rF713w

■Cute and 'tare (droopy)' eyes tutorial ☆彡
https://youtu.be/Y1GtGfo1TPw

童顔ガー以前にメイクをするしない@職場

メイクが大好きで楽しんでいる人、

勝手圧力を感じてメイクを嫌々している人、

現実問題としてノーメイクキャリアに影響が出ると感じるのでメイクする人/それでも敢えて無視してノーメイクの人、

マネージャー社長だけどキャリアに影響していないとノーメイクの人

童顔ガー以前にメイクするもしないも、

It’s her choice” だそうな

そりゃそうだ

(追記:「彼女選択」に言葉をもう少し足してみた anond:20190121031924)


日本は弱さに寛容ですよ
anond:20190123085427

2019-01-19

anond:20190119221733

wow my english is a pen?

that good cus everybody needs pen, right?

thats mean everybody needs me, that good to me, hmm....

2018-08-19

In 2001 Kofi Annan received the Nobel Prize in conjunction with the United Nations.

The focus of his speech was global inequality.


"Ladies and gentlemen,

Today in Afghanistan a girl will be born.

Her mother will hold her, feed her and comfort her and care for her just as any mother would anywhere else in the world.

In those most basic acts of human nature, humanity knows no divisions.

But to be born a girl in Afghanistan today, is to begin life centuries away from the prosperity that one small part of humanity has achieved.

Even thought her mother would do all in her power, to protect her and sustain her.

There is a one in four risk that the girl will not live to see her fifth birthday.

Whether she does is just one of the tests of our common humanity of our belief in our individual responsibility for our fellow men and women.

But it is the only test that matters.

Remember this girl then our large aims to fight poverty, prevent conflict or cure disease will nothing distant or impossible.

Indeed those aims would seem very near and very achievable as they should.

Because beneath the surface of stats and nations, ideas and language lies the fate of individual human beings in need.

Answering their needs will be the mission of the United Nations in the century to come.

Thank you very much."

2017-11-25

承認欲求がない

俺この中の安全欲求までしかないわ

人間として欠陥?特に問題なく社会生活は送れてるが

2017-04-22

http://anond.hatelabo.jp/20170422041028

正社員であっても、やりがいがあって自分しかできない仕事をしている人なんでごく一部の恵まれた人だぞ。

それ以外の大多数は取り替えがきく、やりがいの無い仕事をしている。

でも、やることがあるだけましなのかもしれない。

Liddle: I think a man only needs one thing in life. He just needs someone to love. If you can't give him that, then give him something to hope for. And if you can't give him that, just give him something to do.

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0377062/quotes

2016-05-24

企業にわかってほしい就活生の本音

3月から就職活動を始めて3ヶ月。

多くの会社説明会に参加する中で、どうにももやっとすることがある。

収入福利厚生はどうなっていますか?休みはどのくらい?なんて聞いてくる学生ばかりで、入社後の目標や成し得たい事を持っている学生が少なすぎる!」

会社説明会の中で、このような就活生の意識の低さを嘆いたコメントはよく聞いてきた。

待遇よりも、就職した後で自分がどうなりたいのかをよく考えるべき、というのは至極もっともな意見だと思う。

けれど、ここで一つ分かって欲しいことがある。

入社後の目標や成し得たいことを持っている学生が少なすぎる?”

当たり前だ。入社後の目標や成し得たいことを持っていないのではない、先ず考えられないのだ。

社会人と、就活生では欲求のレベルに差があることを分かって欲しい。

マズロー欲求段階説を例にすると分かりやすいので、マズロー欲求段階説を参考に説明する。

人間基本的欲求はまず、5段階の階層にたとえられる。

自己実現の欲求 (Self-actualization)

承認尊重)の欲求 (Esteem)

社会的欲求 / 所属と愛の欲求 (Social needs / Love and belonging)

安全の欲求 (Safety needs)

生理的欲求 (Physiological needs)

欲求の順番は非常に重要で、下にある欲求が満たされて初めて、上部の欲求に移行すると考えられている。

生きるか死ぬか、自身の身の安全が分からない状態で、まず先に誰かに認められたいと考える人は少ないだろう。

同じように、就活生の場合を考えてみる。

から独立して、1人で生活していかなければならないという意味では、まず安全の欲求を満たそうと意識が向いてしまうのは、当然のことである

企業側が、目標を持て、というのもわかる。社会的欲求、所属と愛にの欲求を満たした社会人ならば、承認自己実現への道筋もしっかりと見え、考えられるだろう。そこで、同じビジョンを見よ、と言うのだ。

そもそも同じ土俵に立っていないのに同じビジョンが見えるだろうか、考えつくのだろうか。

下層の欲求すら満たされていないから、自己実現の欲求なんて考えられません、と言うつもりはない。

けれど、その捉え方が、道筋が、社会人の人と同じぐらい明確に見えるわけではないこと、そして明確でないからこそ、社会人の人と同じビジョンが見たくて、考えてはもがいていることを知って欲しいと思った。

2016-05-12

memo

Web + DBより

Git

コミットを遡る指定
HEAD ~1

HEADの親

HEAD ~2

HEADの親の親

HEAD ^1

HEADの1番目の親

HEAD ^2

HEADの2番目の親

コミット指定する方法
HEAD

現在ブランチの最新コミット

ORIG_HEAD

git merge や git reset でHEADが移動してしまう.

ORIG_HEADを使うことで移動前のHEADを指定できる.

FETCH_HEAD

git fetch によってリモートリポジトリから取得した最新のコミット指定できる.

変更履歴確認する方法
git log --oneline

logを一行で表示する.

git log --decorate

tag名前ブランチマージ履歴を表示する.

git log --follow FILENAME

FILENAMEファイルの変更履歴を,たとえ途中でリネームされたとしてもそれも見る.

git log --author <name>

nameログ検索できる.

git log --graph

ブランチコミットグラフを表示する.

git log -p

コミット差分を表示する.

差分を見る
git diff <base commit>...<opposit commit>

コミット差分を表示する.

トリプルドット指定する必要がある点に注意しましょう.

問題のあるコミットを探す
git log -S "string"

履歴string検索する.

git bisect start <bug commit> <correct commit>

二分探索の開始

git bisect good

提示されたコミットが正しい挙動を示すとき

git bisect bad

提示されたコミットが正しくない挙動を示すとき

git bisect reset

二分探索の終了

rebase
git checkout <branch name, needs to be rebased>
git rebase <base of rebase>

rebase

注意
git pull --rebase

git pull は git fetch + git merge

merge ではなく rebase したい場合に利用するのがよい.

git log --merge

コンフリクトを発生させたコミットを表示する.

高度な機能
git stash

内容の退避

git stash pop

退避した内容の復活

git stash list

退避した内容の一覧

git worktree

作業ワークツリーの追加

git submodule

外部のリポジトリ管理する

git rebase -i HEAD~N

Nは自然数

過去コミットを消したり編集したりする.

最新からN個まえのコミットまでを対象編集できる.

編集時にエディタが開くが,編集を終えてエディタを閉じてもrebase機能しないことがある.

その場合は次のように, .gitconfig へエディタパスを書けばよい.

   [core]
     editor = /usr/bin/vim
フック

2016-04-14

detox

Toxins are everywhere. Car exhaust, secondhand smoke, flame retardants, plastic packaging, heavy metals, pesticides, BPA-coated receipts… Unless you’re living in virgin forest, you’re going to come into contact with some less-than-optimal chemicals pretty much every day.

That’s definitely no reason to panic. In fact, small doses of toxins may be good for you because of a phenomenon called hormesis – mild stress makes your cells work more efficiently. However, your body can have trouble clearing certain toxins. You eliminate most of the bisphenol-A (BPA) and other plastics you ingest, but a small percentage hides away in your fat cells, messing with your hormones and accumulating over time. It’s the same deal with several mold toxins, heavy metals like lead, nickel, cadmium, mercury, and aluminum, and with certain pharmaceuticals and drugs like THC.

A good detox protocol can help you eliminate these more stubborn toxins. The trouble is that many common detoxes don’t work. Juice and water cleanses, for example, are often actually counterproductive because they deprive your body of essential nutrients it needs to function. That said, there are a few genuine ways to detox.

Because so many toxins stay in your fat cells, one way to detox is through lipolysis – breaking down your fat cells and releasing the hard-to-reach toxins stored within them. Lipolysis is especially effective when you combine it with liver and kidney support or adsorbents that can suck up the released toxins. This article focuses on all of the above. Let’s start with saunas.

1) Sauna sessions

Sweating does more than cool you off. It also helps you get rid of both heavy metals and xenobiotics – foreign compounds like plastics and petrochemicals – in small but significant amounts. A 2012 review of 50 studies found that sweating removes lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury, especially in people with high heavy metal toxicity [1]. Another study put participants in both traditional and infrared saunas and found similar results [2]. Sweating also eliminates hormone-disrupting BPA, which accumulates in your fat cells [3].

There’s debate about the best kind of sauna for detoxification. A couple studies have shown that infrared saunas are the most effective for detoxing, but the research was funded by infrared sauna companies, so the results are questionable. Both traditional and infrared saunas are effective for detoxing [2]. That said, I prefer infrared saunas for a few reasons:

They don’t get as hot. Traditional saunas heat the air around you, while infrared light penetrates and heats your tissue directly. You sweat in an infrared sauna at around 130-150 degrees instead of at 180-200 degrees, so you can stay in for longer without feeling like you’re going to pass out. I’ve done 2-hour infrared sauna sessions (drinking salt water the whole time to replenish electrolytes and fluids, of course).

They’re easier on your electric bill. Again, infrared saunas require less energy, especially if you get a sauna that reflects infrared light back on you. This one, for example, costs about 15 cents an hour to run.

Infrared saunas are often cheaper.

I personally use a Sunlighten infrared sauna and love it. If you don’t want to buy an infrared sauna and there isn’t one around you, a standard sauna will work perfectly well [2]. There’s probably one in your local gym.

Keep in mind that sweating pulls electrolytes and trace minerals from your body, so it’s important to drink a lot of fluids and get plenty of salt (preferably Himalayan pink salt or another mineral-rich natural salt) if you’re going to use a sauna to detox [2].

2) Exercise

Exercise is another way to flush toxins from your body, and through more than just making you sweat. Exercise increases lipolysis (the breakdown of fat tissue), releasing toxins stored in your fat tissue. Studies show that people who exercise and lose body fat end up with higher levels of circulating hormone disruptors [4]. Increasing lipolysis through diet does the same thing [5].

Mobilizing toxins isn’t necessarily a good thing, particularly if you’re unequipped to get rid of them. You want to be sure you’re getting rid of toxins, not just moving them to a different part of your body. Working out addresses the issue to a degree: it improves circulation, providing more oxygen to your liver and kidneys so they can better filter out toxins. You can also give your system even more support and pull out bad stuff with the next two detox tools: activated charcoal and glutathione.

3) Activated charcoal

Activated charcoal is a form of carbon that has massive surface area and a strong negative charge. It’s been around for thousands of years and it’s still used in emergency rooms today to treat poisoning.

Charcoal binds to chemicals whose molecules have positive charges, including aflatoxin and other polar mycotoxins [6], BPA [7], and common pesticides [8]. Once the chemicals attach to the charcoal you can pass them normally (i.e. poop them out).

Charcoal can bind to the good stuff, too, so I don’t recommend taking it within an hour of other supplements. Try taking a couple charcoal pills along with exercise or have a sauna session. They should adsorb many of the toxins you release into your gut and GI tract.

4) Glutathione

Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant that protects you from heavy metal damage, according to studies in both human and rat cells [9,10,11,12]. Glutathione also supports liver enzymes that break down mold toxins and heavy metals. Your digestion will destroy normal glutathione, so opt for a liposomal glutathione supplement that makes it through your stomach. You can also supplement with N-acetylcysteine and alpha-lipoic acid, which your body can use to build glutathione on its own [13]. If you have severe heavy metal or mycotoxin poisoning, talk to a naturopath or functional medicine doctor about intravenous (IV) glutathione. It’s expensive and less convenient than an oral supplement, but it works very well.

5) Cryolipolysis

We’ve talked about how heat and exercise can increase fat burning to detox your fat cells. It turns out cold can do the same. Cryochambers are gaining popularity with professional athletes and other high performers for their ability to quell inflammation. It turns out they can help you burn fat – and release the toxins stored in itas well.

A cryochamber uses liquid nitrogen to supercool your body, stimulating mitochondrial function and decreasing inflammation. Intense cold also destroys fat cells, which has led to cryolipolysis therapy as a way to slim down [14,15]. You can use it to detox, too.

Can’t get your hands on a cryochamber? Try traditional cold thermogenesis instead.

6) Ketosis

Quick disclaimer: I haven’t found studies specifically looking at ketosis and toxin load, so you may want to take this section with a grain of (Himalayan) salt. That said, ketosis is a very effective way to induce lipolysis, particularly if you’re fasting.

When you’re in ketosis and you haven’t eaten recently, your body breaks down your fat stores into free fatty acids, which it then converts to ketones for fuel. That means that, in theory, you should be able to supercharge your detox (and fat loss) by dropping into nutritional ketosis.

The Bulletproof Diet puts you into mild ketosis, which curbs your hunger and sharpens your brain without forcing you to forego carbs entirely. If you want to try nutritional ketosis for detoxing, youll have to modify the Bulletproof Diet slightly. Skip carb reefed days for a couple weeks and limit carbs to ~30-50 grams per day. You can use keto urine strips or – even better – a blood ketone meter to test and make sure you’re becoming fat-adapted. Once your levels read around 1.5 mg/dL, you’re comfortably in nutritional ketosis. At that point, fasting will attack your fat stores and mobilize toxins, which you can mop up with activated charcoal or sweat out (or both).

7) Chelation therapy for heavy metals

Chelation therapy is the strongest way to detox heavy metals. It can also be dangerous, so many doctors don’t recommend it unless you have moderate to severe heavy metal poisoning. Chelation therapy uses compounds called chelators that form strong bonds with heavy metals, leaving them unable to further poison your body. You can then pass them normally. Chelation therapy is very effective for removing lead, mercury, aluminum, arsenic, iron, and copper.

If you’ve been exposed to a lot of heavy metals, talk to a functional medicine doctor about chelation therapy. You really want to go to a medical professional for this one, because it’s so effective that if your liver and kidneys aren’t able to process the metals (a common problem in people with heavy metal poisoning) you can get seriously ill.

Combining detox methods for maximum effect

Each of these 7 methods works well on its own, and you can stack methods for an even greater effect. Exercise and sauna sessions are a good example. Preliminary evidence suggests that exercising and then hitting the sauna afterward will detoxify you better than either one alone does [16]. With that in mind, here’s a sample detox protocol:

Take 2-3 mL liposomal glutathione and 2-3 g vitamin C an hour before exercising.

Exercise for at least 20-30 minutes (HIIT is a good option).

Take 3-4 activated charcoal pills.

Spend 45-60 minutes in a sauna. Remember to get plenty of water and salt/electrolytes.

If you have a lot of fat and you’re burning it off quickly, you’re probably getting rid of a lot of toxins in one fell swoop, and you may get a headache, digestive problems, brain fog, etc. If that happens try taking more glutathione, vitamin C, and charcoal. Be sure you take charcoal at least an hour away from other supplements, as it binds to vitamin C.

Toxins are a fact of modern life, especially if you live in a city or somewhere with poor air quality, mold, and/or a lot of petrochemical byproducts. These detox methods can give your body a little extra support dealing with pollutants and help you perform your best.

Subscribe below if you want more info about how to upgrade your body and brain. Thanks for reading and have a great week!

2016-03-27

http://anond.hatelabo.jp/20160327120607 (定期的に追加するかも)

俺がNGに入れてるサイト

サードブロガー古参周辺の互助も消したい人はオススメ

あとtogechとかのピーサイトNGにしてる。

追記

イケハヤはあちゅうあんまり新着に出てこない気がする。

旅のあれを見てこんなヤツもいたな~と感じたレベル

追記2

はてなブックマークNGにしてない。ブコメリンクブクマして晒すの最高やん?

村長は言われてみればリスト入りだろうが、たまたま目につく機会がなかったな。

シロクマ案件によるからリストには入れない。

bulldraちゃん、らくからちゃも同じ理由リストには入れない。

社畜デマこい、ヒトデあたりはこの機会に入れよう。

その辺はうまく調整してほしい。

毎日新聞は購読しないと読めないとか、期限がすぎると読めない系が多かったから、かもしれない。

はてブ新着:はてなブログカテゴリ見る時とか、いらんブログを見なくて済むぞ?

追記3

コレ使ってます

はてなNG - Chrome ウェブストア (はてブページに表示させない)

SiteBlock - Chrome Web Store (間違ってクリックしても非表示)

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2014-04-28

戦後韓国慰安婦制度の使用」に関する海外研究

韓国訪問したオバマが「慰安婦はとんでもない人権侵害だ」と発言した。

それに対して安倍総理は「筆舌に尽くしがたい思いをされた慰安婦の方々のことを思うと本当に胸が痛む思い」だとし、

「20世紀は女性を始め、多くの人権侵害された世紀であった。人権侵害が起こらない21世紀にするため、日本も大きな貢献をしたい」と述べた。

これはちょっと意外な発言で、日韓メディア右派左派ともにちょっと戸惑った感じがしたように思える。

安部首相の真意がどういうものなのか、これからの行動を見ないと分からないが、

これは、慰安婦に対する人権侵害を認めつつ、「慰安婦制度をやっていたのは日本だけでなかった」という文脈を作ろうとしているのかなと思えた。

それはオバマの発言に対して、「米軍慰安婦はどうなんだ」「朴正煕韓国軍慰安婦管理はどうなんだ」という反応が多く見られたものを反映していると思う。

20世紀」という一般化といい、正直なかなかうまい手というか、慰安婦問題に対して右左をなだめる、これまでにないスタンスになるかもと思った。

そうなってくると、戦後韓国慰安婦制度本当にあったのかという話になってくる。あったなら、慰安婦像海外に建てるキャンペーンが別の意味を持ってくる。

別にあいつらもやってから、俺らは悪くない」という意図ではなく、

実際問題として、日本謝罪もし、アジア女性基金設立した一方で、韓国自身が実は同じ問題を抱えていたのに黙殺するという事態は、事実を明らかにする上でも好ましくないと思う。

まとめサイトではソースあいまいものも含めてよく目にするが、いくら内輪で盛り上がっても意味は皆無で

海外でどのようにどのように研究されているか、というのが重要になると思う。

残念ながら、メディアという点では海外では概して「20万人の韓国人日本性奴隷にされた」「日本はその歴史を否定しようとしている」という文脈で報じられているのがほとんどだ。

しかし、アカデミズムの分野では、ここ最近韓国自身の慰安婦制度に目を向けられているものも増えているように見受けられる。

おおよそ中立的立場であると見受けられるC.Sarah Sohという研究者2009年出版された"The Comfort Women"という本は海外でも評判が高いようなので、色々調べようと思った。

http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/6068978-the-comfort-women

検索すると、Google Readersで一部内容が見ることができ、その部分にちょうど韓国慰安婦制度について記述しているところがあったので、メモ代わりに引用しておく。

もちろん、この本は、日本慰安婦制度、および人権侵害にも厳しい目を向けているが、

この部分の結論としては、韓国慰安婦生存者を日本の抵抗のシンボルとして英雄扱いする一方で、韓国自身の慰安婦制度含む性の人権侵害には目を向けてこなかったということを言っている。

韓国戦後慰安婦制度を使用してきた」という事実は、単なるネット右翼デマではなく、海外研究者にも裏付けられている事実であり、もっと注目されるべきではないかなと思う。

"The Comfort Women: Sexual Violence and Postcolonial Memory in Korea and Japan" by C.Sarah Soh

(p:211~)

After its liberation from Japanese rule in August 1945,the Korean Peninsula was divided into two: Soviet troops occupied the northern half and the US military the southern half. The ongoing US military presence in South Korea led to the formation and maintenance of “Camp towns” (kijich’on, in Korean) around the military bases, a development that has had a striking social impact on Korean communities. Kijich’on (literally, base or camp [kiji] village [ch’on]) refers to the civilian world of commercial establishments and residential buildings that have sprung up around the US military bases and cater to the needs of the American GI’s. It is “ a place where Koreans and Americans- mostly male military personnel- meet in an economic and emotional marriage of convenience”. As of the end of 1996, 37,000 American troops supported the economies of ninety-six kijich’on. The estimated number of kijich’on prostitutes over the first four decades of the American presence ranges between 250,000 and 300,000.

(中略)

The kijich'on sex trade consolidated and expanded during the second phase, which began with the Korean War. In her testimony, Pak Sun-i who had laboured at three different comfort startions in Japan 1944 to the end of the war, recalled:

"At twenty-seven years of age, I was having a hard time making ends meet in Tongduch'on (the largest kijich'on just outside Seoul). I ended up cohabiting with a staff sergeant of the USArmy for about two years... One of my friends from the days at a comfort station in Japan also worked as yang-gonju, but she passed away."

An American veteran who served in Korea in the 1950s after the end of the Korean War recounted that on Friday nights half-ton trucks would bring into the base a few hundred women to stay the night or the weekend with the soldiers. In 1958, five years after the armistice, the majority of about 300,000 prostitutes in Korea reportedly served American soldiers. Some of them, like their earlier Japanese counterparts(RAA), married and emigrated to the United States as wives of servicemen.

The fact that the Korean military also availed themselves of the "special comfort unit" during the Korean War has received little public attention even after the Korean women's movement in support of the "comfort women" began in the 1990s. Only piecemeal anecdotal materials on it had come to light from memoirs written by retired generals and generals and the testimony of soldiers who fought in the war.

(中略)

Characterizing the Korean military comfort system as an "unfortunate offspring" of the Japanese colonial legacy, Kim Kwi-ok called for victimized women, civic organizations, and scholars to come together and confront the unresolved issues of this historical injustice. The media reports of Kim's work, however, have generated little response. There has been no public outcry regarding the Korean military's use of "comfort women" during the Korean War or its violation of women's human rights. Korean silence over these issues is reminiscent of earlier societal indifference toward survivors of imperial Japan's comfort system, It mirrors the reticence of many Japanese to come to terms with the history of their country's wartime comfort system. As in the case of Japan, many in Korea, including retired military leaders, apparently regard the women's sexual labour simply as the performance of gendered customary sex labour in order to meet the needs of fighting men. It is noteworthy that military authorities have acknowledged that the system of special comfort units contradicts the national policy of banning licensed prostitution. Nonetheless, they have insisted that the special units were created to fulfill an important strategic end.

(中略)

(日本人韓国への売春ツアー、及び韓国人東南アジアへの売春ツアーは看過されてきたが、という話の後)

However, when it comes to the issue of Japan's wartime "comfort women" system, which has been redefined by the international community as a prominent case of violence against women in armed conflict, no social critic or public intellectual in Korea would dare to take the customary masculinist position that such a system benefits the economy or promotes national security. This is because the comfort women issue has been redefiend as military sexual slavery and a war crime by the international community owing largely to women's collaborative movement for redress in Japan and Korea.

Still, little critical public discourse has occurred on the legacies of that historical institution or the social structural dimension of Korea'S comfort women tragedy. Few are willing to consider the unsavoury fact that, accustomed to indigenous public institutions that have granted customary sex rights to men, and licensed by the colonial government, many Koreans did not hesitate to collaborate in recruiting and runing comfort stations by trafficking in girls and young women. Rather than deal with the messy and unpleasant complications of the historical record, Korean public discourse has simplistically elevated the survivors to heroic symbols of national suffering under Japanese colonialism and its imperialist war of aggression.

By contrast, Japan, which is unavoidably seen as the perpetrator nation, has been in turmoil over contested representations of the comfort women phenomenon and its responsibility in the matter. Meanwhile, the international - as well as domestic - trade in public sex prospers in capitalist economies of Japan and Korea despite endless incidents of criminal abuse of women so employed by both foreigners and compatriots. The social historical legacies of masculinist sexual culture and political economic realities in the two countries continue to help construct women'S sexual labour as stigmatized yet customary care labour for masculine "need".

 
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