Ghost Leg (Chinese: 畫鬼腳), known in Japan as Amidakuji (阿弥陀籤, "Amida lottery", so named because the paper was folded into a fan shape resembling Amida's halo) or in Korea as Sadaritagi (사다리타기, literally "ladder climbing")
The 1981 arcade game Amidar programmed by Konami and published by Stern used the same lattice as a maze. The game even took its name from Amidakuji and most of the enemy movement conformed to the lot drawing game's rules
An early Sega Master System game called Psycho Fox uses the mechanics of an Amidakuji board as a means to bet a bag of coins on a chance at a prize at the top of the screen. Later Sega Genesis games based on the same game concept DecapAttack and its Japanese predecessor "Magical Hat no Buttobi Tabo! Daibōken" follow the same game mechanics, including the Amidakuji bonus levels.
Super Mario Land 2: 6 Golden Coins features an Amidakuji-style bonus game that rewards the player with a power-up. New Super Mario Bros. and Wario: Master of Disguise feature an Amidakuji-style minigame in which the player uses the stylus to trace lines that will lead the character down the right path.
In Mario Party there is a mini game where one of the four players pours money into an Amidakuji made out of pipes. The goal is to try to choose the path leading to the character controlled by the player.
In Super Monkey Ball 2, there is a level in the Advanced-Extra difficulty named "Amida Lot" (Advanced-EX 7) that features a floor resembling an Amidakuji board, which bumper travels around the way and may knock off the player if they happen to hit them. The goal only travels through one of the vertical lines and the player must reach the goal using the ghost legs while avoiding the bumpers to not fall out.
Azalea Gym in Pokémon HeartGold and SoulSilver was redesigned with an Amidakuji-based system of carts to cross. The correct choices lead to the gym leader; the wrong ones lead to other trainers to fight.
Phantasy Star Online 2 uses the principle of Amidakuji for a randomly appearing bomb-defusing minigame. One must trace an Amidakuji path around each bomb to determine which button defuses it; incorrect selections knock players away for a few seconds, wasting time.
I would like to write about what I know and understand about the Soka Gakkai because the D.C. Times published an article titled "China's Manipulation of Japan, NPOs and Soka Gakkai Act as Pipeline = U.S. Think Tank Report".
You can read more about the definition of a religious cult and mind control in the book "Combating Cult Mind Control: The #1 Best-selling Guide to Protection, Rescue, and Recovery from Destructive Cults ".
In the 1950s and 1980s, Soka Gakkai members were forcibly recruited to join the Soka Gakkai, and nowadays, it is estimated that about 10% of the Japanese people are members of the Gakkai (Soka Gakkai members).
In particular, the Soka Gakkai has infiltrated civil servants, specifically the police force, the fire department, and the Self-Defense Forces, and it has been revealed that 20 to 30% of the Metropolitan Police Department's employees are members of the Soka Gakkai.
There is always a certain percentage of Soka Gakkai members in elementary, middle, and high school classes, and in corporate workplaces, and therefore it is taboo to criticize the Soka Gakkai in those communities.
This is because the Gakkai members in each community monitor the words and actions of their community members in the same way as the mainland communists who have infiltrated Hong Kong, and if someone speaks out against the Soka Gakkai, they will target that person and initiate a campaign of sabotage.
The sabotage is similar to the CPC's repressive actions against human rights activists in Hong Kong, including obstructing, harassing, and following them around, an act that has been described as mass stalking.
For example, in Japan, if you make a placating statement in a school class or at work that the Soka Gakkai is a cult religious group because it meets the definition of a cult group, members of the Gakkai in the community get madly angry (depending on the degree of mind control they are receiving) or bite off their anger to deny the statement.
Then they label the person who made such a statement as "anti", and they also share information about the antis with other members of the Soka Gakkai, and begin to perceive them as "beings to be punished by Buddha", to be targets of surveillance and group attacks.
In reality, however, the definition of a religious cult was not defined for the Soka Gakkai but for dangerous religious groups such as Aum Shinrikyo and People's Temple, which were intended to prevent ordinary people from being harmed by them.
When Soka Gakkai members are pointed out to the Soka Gakkai, instead of thinking "Let's fix what's wrong with my religious group," they think of suppressing their critics (anti) and silencing them, which is a pattern of thinking and behavior of a fanatic of a religious cult, and the sarin gas attack (terrorism). I feel that the followers of Aum Shinrikyo at the time when it was founded must have had a similar pattern of thinking and behavior.
Believers in cult groups are unconsciously mind-controlled and brainwashed, so they don't think that they should change their way of thinking and behavior when criticism is pointed out to them. In this respect, their attitude is similar to that of the Chinese Communist Party towards the demands of human rights activists in Hong Kong, i.e., the fanatics of cult groups such as the Soka Gakkai are not normal human beings.
It is well known that some anti-American organizations cooperate with each other in order to undermine this country by signing a pact called "Soko Kyodo Agreement" and facilitating agents of anti-Japanese and anti-American groups.
From another point of view, the Soka Gakkai, to its followers, appears to be a huge organization that carries out fraudulent and criminal activities such as Ponzi schemes and network businesses. It also has elements of a black business, and believers who join the Soka Gakkai are becoming materially and mentally exhausted.
The following blog, run by Mr. Sinifié, exposes the reality of the Soka Gakkai. It contains the testimonies and experiences of many current and former Soka Gakkai members and ex-members who have left the Gakkai.
Although the Soka Gakkai employs a different strategy than Aum Shinrikyo and has infiltrated many organizations such as corporations, police, fire departments, the Self-Defense Forces, and local government officials, the Soka Gakkai members who have infiltrated the Kasumigaseki bureaucracy and the Self-Defense Forces are considered dangerous to the U.S. because they are inherently dangerous.
There are some findings that are common knowledge among intellectuals in the U.S. and Europe but have not been made known to the Japanese people in Japan because the media and bureaucrats have stopped them.
Daisaku Ikeda of the Soka Gakkai has been investing and managing the donations collected from Gakkai members in Noriega's drug business as well as tax evasion and money laundering. At the same time, the Soka Gakkai and Daisaku Ikeda invested the donations they received from Gakkai members in Noriega's drug business as a means of tax evasion and money laundering, and returned the profits to the domestic market to help the Soka Gakkai executives line their pockets and build Soka Gakkai facilities and Soka University.
In particular, there are many Gakkai members at the level of police organizations, the Metropolitan Police Department and prefectures, who have been causing social problems and covering up crimes committed by Gakkai members in Japan.
Well, if they are in a state of unconscious brainwashing and mind control, they may not believe the contents, and may assume a pattern of behavior such as getting angry, grumpy, or attacking the writer.
In other words, one can expect a lot of denial of facts like the followers of Aum Shinrikyo, which is easy to expect, but this (the issue of Soka Gakkai and drug business, tax evasion, and money laundering) is a fact that was revealed because Noriega was arrested and imprisoned for spreading drugs in the US. This is a fact that is well known as common knowledge in the U.S. and Europe.
ワシントン・ポストにThe Health Care Scare ヘルスケアの恐怖：私はアメリカ人にカナダの医学についての嘘を売り、いま我々はその対価を払っている、というコラムが載っていて、興味深かったので訳しました。アメリカの健康保険が高すぎて、保険に入れない人が多くおり、これがアメリカの嫌儲問題の一因となっていた事は有名だと思います。この問題をなんとかする為に、2009年にオバマケアとも呼ばれるAffordable Care Act (ACA)が成立したわけですが、このACAは民間保険会社に大きく依存した制度でした。なぜ他の多くの国がやっているような（勿論、各国ごとのバリエーションは大きいわけですが）政府による保険の提供が行われず、できる限り民間市場に頼った制度になったのか？色々理由はあるわけですが、その一つが保険会社によるプロパガンダであり、そ担当者だった保険会社の重役が書いた懺悔がこのコラムです。
2007年、私はCignaの広報担当(Corporate communications)の副社長として働いていた。その夏、マイケル・ムーアは彼の最新ドキュメンタリー”Sicko”をリリースする準備をしていた。アメリカの医療を他の豊かな国々のそれと比べるものだ（当然ながら、我々は酷いものに映っていた）。私は他の大手保険会社の同じ役割の人間たちとその映画を叩く為の秘密裏の会議に何ヶ月も費やしていた。この映画には重要な医療処置への保険適用を認められなかった患者たちの多くの逸話が含まれていた。例えば3歳のAnnette Noeだ。彼女が聴こえるようになる為の2つ人工内耳の移植の支払いを彼女の両親がCignaに求めてきた時、我々はただ１つしか認めなかった。
明らかに、私と仲間たちは強固なディフェンスを必要としていた。業界の最大の事業者団体、America’s Health Insurance Plans (AHIP)の為のタスクフォースにおいて、我々はいかにしてカナダ、フランス、英国、そしてはてはキューバの健康医療制度を我々のもの同様の酷いものに見せるかについて話し合った。我々は大手のPR会社であるAPCOワールドワイドを雇い、そこのエージェントたちがAHIPと共に私のような企業の宣伝屋がニュースリリースや記者向けの声明で使える宣伝文句のバインダーをまとめ上げた。
次はそのバインダーの中のAHIPの広報資料からの例だ：「2004年5月の世論調査によるとカナダのビジネスリーダの87％がもし緊急で医療が必要になれば政府のシステムの外側の医療機関を探すとしている」。これのソースは業界が支援しているPacific Research Instituteの社長であるSally Pipesによる2004年の、「ミラクルケア：アメリカのヘルスケア危機をいかに解決するか、そしてなぜカナダは答えではないのか」というタイトルの本だ。同じ本からの他の主張は、カナダの放射線技師の協会のCEOが「カナダの放射線技術の設備はあまりに酷すぎて、『早急の対応がなければ放射線技師は検査の信頼性と品質について保証することはできなくなるだろう』」という言葉を引用している。
|むらびと||Villager||Villager Comes to Town!||-||-||-|
|ロックマン||Mega Man||Mega Man Joins the Battle!||-||-||-|
|Wii Fit トレーナ||Wii Fit Trainer||Wii Fit Trainer Weighs In!||weigh in||計量する、割って入る、仲裁に入る||計量する→体重測定？|
|ロゼッタ＆チコ||Rosalina ＆ Luma||Rosalina ＆ Luma launch into battle!||launch into||始める、門出する||Launch:（ロケットなどを）打ち上げる→ほうき星の天文台|
|リトルマック||Little Mac||Little Mac Punches In!||punch in||打ち込む||ボクサー|
|リザードン||Charizard||Charizard Fires it Up!||fire up||火をつける、始動させる、駆り立てる||ほのおタイプポケモン|
|ゲッコウガ||Greninja||Greninja Makes A Splash!||make a splash||音を立てる、あっと言わせる、水しぶきを上げる||みずタイプポケモン|
|パックマン||Pac-Man||Pac-Man Hungers for Battle!||hunger for||切望する||Hunger←ゲーム性から|
|ルキナ||Lucina||Lucina Wakes Her Blade?!||-||-||ファイアーエンブレム 覚醒(Awakening)とかけてる？|
|ルフレ||Robin||Robin Brings the Thunder!||-||-||サンダーソードという武器を使う|
|シュルク||Shulk||Shulk Foresees a Fight!||foresee||見越す、予見する||未来視という能力がある|
|クッパJr.||Bowser Jr.||Bowser Jr. Clowns the Competition!||clown||ふざける||いたずら|
|ダックハント||Duck Hunt||Duck Hunt Takes Aim!||take aim||狙いを定める||カモを狙い撃つゲーム性から|
|ミュウツー||Mewtwo||Mewtwo Strikes Back!||strike back||殴り返す、反撃する||ミュウツーの逆襲|
|リュカ||Lucas||Lucas Comes Out of Nowhere!||come out of nowhere||突然やってくる||リュカはノーウェア(Nowhere)島に住んでいる|
|ロイ||Roy||Roy Seals the Deal!||seal the deal||契約を結ぶ、取引を固める||ロイは封印(seal)の剣の主人公|
|リュウ||Ryu||Here Comes A New Challenger! Ryu||-||-||ストリートファイターの乱入時のメッセージ|
|クラウド||Cloud||Cloud Storms into Battle!||storm into||押し入る、突入する||Storm Clouds（凶兆、悪いことが起こる前兆）|
|カムイ||Corrin||Corrin Chooses to Smash!||choose to do||決める||ファイアーエンブレムifの「運命の分岐点」で選択肢を選ぶから|
|ベヨネッタ||Bayonetta||Bayonetta Gets Wicked!||-||-||-|
|リドリー||Ridley||Ridley Hits the Big Time!||hit the big time||成功する、一流になる、大当たりする||Ridley is too big.というネットミーム|
|シモン||Simon||Simon Lashes Out!||lash out||暴力で攻撃する、食って掛かる||Lash（ムチ）→メインウェポンがムチ|
|リヒター||Richter||Richter Crosses Over!||cross over||クロスオーバーする、枠を超える||Cross→横必殺技がクロス（十字架のブーメラン）|
|クロム||Chrom||Chrom Joins the Battle!||-||-||-|
|ダークサムス||Dark Samus||Dark Samus Joins the Battle!||-||-||-|
|キングクルール||King K. Rool||King K. Rool Comes Aboard!||come aboard||（船に）乗り込む、参加する||船に乗り込む→キャプテン|
|しずえ||Isabelle||Isabelle Turns Over A New Leaf!||turn over a new leaf||改心する、心機一転する||「とびだせ どうぶつの森」の英語タイトルが「Animal Crossing: New Leaf」|
|ケン||Ken||Ken Turns Up the Heat!||turn up the heat||温度をあげる、強火にする、勢いを増す||ケンはリュウと違い、昇龍拳で火を噴く|
|ガオガエン||Incineroar||Incineroar Enters the Ring!||enter the ring||リングに入る||プロレス技を使うキャラクターなので|
|パックンフラワー||Piranha Plant||Piranha Plant Pipes Up!||pipe up||しゃべり（歌い）始める、甲高い声で話す、汲み上げる||土管|
|バンジョー＆カズーイ||Banjo-Kazooie||Banjo-Kazooie are Raring to Go!||raring to go||今か今かと待ち切れない、～したくてしかたがない||開発元がRare社|
|勇者||Hero||The Hero Draws Near!||draw near||そこに向かって動く|
Journey / Frontiers
Queen / The Works
He is a PhD Scientist, whose father has extensive experience in Germany’s nuclear industry. I asked him to write this information to my family in Australia, who were being made sick with worry by the media reports coming from Japan. I am republishing it with his permission.
I am writing this text (Mar 12) to give you some peace of mind regarding some of the troubles in Japan, that is the safety of Japan’s nuclear reactors. Up front, the situation is serious, but under control. And this text is long! But you will know more about nuclear power plants after reading it than all journalists on this planet put together.
By “significant” I mean a level of radiation of more than what you would receive on – say – a long distance flight, or drinking a glass of beer that comes from certain areas with high levels of natural background radiation.
I have been reading every news release on the incident since the earthquake. There has not been one single (!) report that was accurate and free of errors (and part of that problem is also a weakness in the Japanese crisis communication). By “not free of errors” I do not refer to tendentious anti-nuclear journalism – that is quite normal these days. By “not free of errors” I mean blatant errors regarding physics and natural law, as well as gross misinterpretation of facts, due to an obvious lack of fundamental and basic understanding of the way nuclear reactors are build and operated. I have read a 3 page report on CNN where every single paragraph contained an error.
The plants at Fukushima are so called Boiling Water Reactors, or BWR for short. Boiling Water Reactors are similar to a pressure cooker. The nuclear fuel heats water, the water boils and creates steam, the steam then drives turbines that create the electricity, and the steam is then cooled and condensed back to water, and the water send back to be heated by the nuclear fuel. The pressure cooker operates at about 250 °C.
The nuclear fuel is uranium oxide. Uranium oxide is a ceramic with a very high melting point of about 3000 °C. The fuel is manufactured in pellets (think little cylinders the size of Lego bricks). Those pieces are then put into a long tube made of Zircaloy with a melting point of 2200 °C, and sealed tight. The assembly is called a fuel rod. These fuel rods are then put together to form larger packages, and a number of these packages are then put into the reactor. All these packages together are referred to as “the core”.
The core is then placed in the “pressure vessels”. That is the pressure cooker we talked about before. The pressure vessels is the second containment. This is one sturdy piece of a pot, designed to safely contain the core for temperatures several hundred °C. That covers the scenarios where cooling can be restored at some point.
The entire “hardware” of the nuclear reactor – the pressure vessel and all pipes, pumps, coolant (water) reserves, are then encased in the third containment. The third containment is a hermetically (air tight) sealed, very thick bubble of the strongest steel. The third containment is designed, built and tested for one single purpose: To contain, indefinitely, a complete core meltdown. For that purpose, a large and thick concrete basin is cast under the pressure vessel (the second containment), which is filled with graphite, all inside the third containment. This is the so-called “core catcher”. If the core melts and the pressure vessel bursts (and eventually melts), it will catch the molten fuel and everything else. It is built in such a way that the nuclear fuel will be spread out, so it can cool down.
This third containment is then surrounded by the reactor building. The reactor building is an outer shell that is supposed to keep the weather out, but nothing in. (this is the part that was damaged in the explosion, but more to that later).
The uranium fuel generates heat by nuclear fission. Big uranium atoms are split into smaller atoms. That generates heat plus neutrons (one of the particles that forms an atom). When the neutron hits another uranium atom, that splits, generating more neutrons and so on. That is called the nuclear chain reaction.
Now, just packing a lot of fuel rods next to each other would quickly lead to overheating and after about 45 minutes to a melting of the fuel rods. It is worth mentioning at this point that the nuclear fuel in a reactor can *never* cause a nuclear explosion the type of a nuclear bomb. Building a nuclear bomb is actually quite difficult (ask Iran). In Chernobyl, the explosion was caused by excessive pressure buildup, hydrogen explosion and rupture of all containments, propelling molten core material into the environment (a “dirty bomb”). Why that did not and will not happen in Japan, further below.
In order to control the nuclear chain reaction, the reactor operators use so-called “moderator rods”. The moderator rods absorb the neutrons and kill the chain reaction instantaneously. A nuclear reactor is built in such a way, that when operating normally, you take out all the moderator rods. The coolant water then takes away the heat (and converts it into steam and electricity) at the same rate as the core produces it. And you have a lot of leeway around the standard operating point of 250°C.
The challenge is that after inserting the rods and stopping the chain reaction, the core still keeps producing heat. The uranium “stopped” the chain reaction. But a number of intermediate radioactive elements are created by the uranium during its fission process, most notably Cesium and Iodine isotopes, i.e. radioactive versions of these elements that will eventually split up into smaller atoms and not be radioactive anymore. Those elements keep decaying and producing heat. Because they are not regenerated any longer from the uranium (the uranium stopped decaying after the moderator rods were put in), they get less and less, and so the core cools down over a matter of days, until those intermediate radioactive elements are used up.
There is a second type of radioactive material created, outside the fuel rods. The big main difference up front: Those radioactive materials have a very short half-life, that means that they decay very fast and split into non-radioactive materials. By fast I mean seconds. So if these radioactive materials are released into the environment, yes, radioactivity was released, but no, it is not dangerous, at all. Why? By the time you spelled “R-A-D-I-O-N-U-C-L-I-D-E”, they will be harmless, because they will have split up into non radioactive elements. Those radioactive elements are N-16, the radioactive isotope (or version) of nitrogen (air). The others are noble gases such as Xenon. But where do they come from? When the uranium splits, it generates a neutron (see above). Most of these neutrons will hit other uranium atoms and keep the nuclear chain reaction going. But some will leave the fuel rod and hit the water molecules, or the air that is in the water. Then, a non-radioactive element can “capture” the neutron. It becomes radioactive. As described above, it will quickly (seconds) get rid again of the neutron to return to its former beautiful self.
I will try to summarize the main facts. The earthquake that hit Japan was 7 times more powerful than the worst earthquake the nuclear power plant was built for (the Richter scale works logarithmically; the difference between the 8.2 that the plants were built for and the 8.9 that happened is 7 times, not 0.7). So the first hooray for Japanese engineering, everything held up.
When the earthquake hit with 8.9, the nuclear reactors all went into automatic shutdown. Within seconds after the earthquake started, the moderator rods had been inserted into the core and nuclear chain reaction of the uranium stopped. Now, the cooling system has to carry away the residual heat. The residual heat load is about 3% of the heat load under normal operating conditions.
The earthquake destroyed the external power supply of the nuclear reactor. That is one of the most serious accidents for a nuclear power plant, and accordingly, a “plant black out” receives a lot of attention when designing backup systems. The power is needed to keep the coolant pumps working. Since the power plant had been shut down, it cannot produce any electricity by itself any more.
Things were going well for an hour. One set of multiple sets of emergency Diesel power generators kicked in and provided the electricity that was needed. Then the Tsunami came, much bigger than people had expected when building the power plant (see above, factor 7). The tsunami took out all multiple sets of backup Diesel generators.
When designing a nuclear power plant, engineers follow a philosophy called “Defense of Depth”. That means that you first build everything to withstand the worst catastrophe you can imagine, and then design the plant in such a way that it can still handle one system failure (that you thought could never happen) after the other. A tsunami taking out all backup power in one swift strike is such a scenario. The last line of defense is putting everything into the third containment (see above), that will keep everything, whatever the mess, moderator rods in our out, core molten or not, inside the reactor.