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はてなキーワード: substanceとは


style over substance




Although what causes pedophilia is not yet known, researchers began reporting a series of findings linking pedophilia with brain structure and function, beginning in 2002. Testing individuals from a variety of referral sources inside and outside the criminal justice system as well as controls, these studies found associations between pedophilia and lower IQs,[48][49][50] poorer scores on memory tests,[49] greater rates of non-right-handedness,[48][49][51][52] greater rates of school grade failure over and above the IQ differences,[53] lesser physical height,[54][55] greater probability of having suffered childhood head injuries resulting in unconsciousness,[56][57] and several differences in MRI-detected brain structures.[58][59][60]

Such studies suggest that there are one or more neurological characteristics present at birth that cause or increase the likelihood of being pedophilic. Some studies have found that pedophiles are less cognitively impaired than non-pedophilic child molesters.[61] A 2011 study reported that pedophilic child molesters had deficits in response inhibition, but no deficits in memory or cognitive flexibility.[62] Evidence of familial transmittability "suggests, but does not prove that genetic factors are responsible" for the development of pedophilia.[63] A 2015 study indicated that pedophilic offenders have a normal IQ.[64]

Another study, using structural MRI, indicated that male pedophiles have a lower volume of white matter than a control group.[58] Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has indicated that child molesters diagnosed with pedophilia have reduced activation of the hypothalamus as compared with non-pedophilic persons when viewing sexually arousing pictures of adults.[65] A 2008 functional neuroimaging study notes that central processing of sexual stimuli in heterosexual "paedophile forensic inpatients" may be altered by a disturbance in the prefrontal networks, which "may be associated with stimulus-controlled behaviours, such as sexual compulsive behaviours". The findings may also suggest "a dysfunction at the cognitive stage of sexual arousal processing".[66]

Blanchard, Cantor, and Robichaud (2006) reviewed the research that attempted to identify hormonal aspects of pedophiles.[67] They concluded that there is some evidence that pedophilic men have less testosterone than controls, but that the research is of poor quality and that it is difficult to draw any firm conclusion from it.

While not causes of pedophilia themselves, childhood abuse by adults or comorbid psychiatric illnesses—such as personality disorders and substance abuse—are risk factors for acting on pedophilic urges.[6] Blanchard, Cantor, and Robichaud addressed comorbid psychiatric illnesses that, "The theoretical implications are not so clear. Do particular genes or noxious factors in the prenatal environment predispose a male to develop both affective disorders and pedophilia, or do the frustration, danger, and isolation engendered by unacceptable sexual desires—or their occasional furtive satisfactionlead to anxiety and despair?"[67] They indicated that, because they previously found mothers of pedophiles to be more likely to have undergone psychiatric treatment,[56] the genetic possibility is more likely.

A study analyzing the sexual fantasies of 200 heterosexual men by using the Wilson Sex Fantasy Questionnaire exam determined that males with a pronounced degree of paraphilic interest (including pedophilia) had a greater number of older brothers, a high 2D:4D digit ratio (which would indicate low prenatal androgen exposure), and an elevated probability of being left-handed, suggesting that disturbed hemispheric brain lateralization may play a role in deviant attractions.[68]








Christmas decorations are found almost everywhere in the city.

It was a nice atmosphere when two people brought their bodies together and watch horror movies.

Please do not push down with a strong force.




This function is almost impossible to differentiate almost everywhere.

The substance reacts vigorously under a specific atmosphere.

The reach of strong force is much longer than weak force.





例えばストーリー構造分析と組み立てについては、McKee: "Story: Style, Structure, Substance, and the Principles of Screenwriting" あたりがカバーしてる内容は、脚本家だけじゃなく監督役者目指してる人もシーン分析クラス等で学ぶけど、そういうのは技法のうちに入らない? Voglerの"The Writer's Journey" は…技法というよりは基礎教養かもしれないけど、必読書っていう評は聞くし、実際役に立ってる(自分は書く方じゃないけど。脚本分析にね。)






Has the Beneficiary/Applicant ever withheld custody of a U.S. citizen child outside the United States from a person granted legal custody by a U.S. court, voted in the United States in violation of any law or regulation or renounced U.S. citizenship for the purpose of avoiding taxation?


Is the Beneficiary/Applicant now or has he/she ever been a member of, or in any way connected or associated with the Communist Party, or ever knowingly aided or supported the communist party directly, or indirectly through another organization, group or person, or ever advocated, taught, believed in, or knowingly supported or furthered the interests of communism?


Did Beneficiary/Applicant, between March 23, 1933 and May 8, 1945, in association with either the Nazi Government of Germany, either order, incite, assist or otherwise participate in the persecution of any person because of race, religion, national origin or political opinion?


Has the Beneficiary/Applicant ever left the United States to avoid being drafted into the U.S. Armed Forces?


Does the Beneficiary/Applicant plan to practice polygamy in the U.S.?


Has the Beneficiary/Applicant within the past ten years been a prostitute or procured anyone for prostitution, or intend to engage in such activities in the future?


Has the Beneficiary/Applicant ever knowingly encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted or aided any alien to try to enter the U.S. illegally?


Has the Beneficiary/Applicant ever illicitly trafficked in any controlled substance, or knowingly assisted, abetted or colluded in the illicit trafficking of any controlled substance?


Has Beneficiary/Applicant ever engaged in any unlawful commercialized vice, including, but not limited to, illegal gambling?


Does the Beneficiary/Applicant intend to engage in espionage in the U.S.?


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