Hydrogen peroxide and acetone are used to make triacetone triperoxide, or TATP, a powerful explosive with the consistency of granulated sugar used by operatives in their attacks against Paris and Brussels. The bombers who killed 52 in London in 2005 used it, and al Qaeda operative Richard Reid stuffed it in his shoes in a failed attempt to bring down an airliner flying from the U.K. to the U.S. in 2001.
Ehud Keinan, an Israeli chemist and one of the world’s leading authorities on TATP, said the explosive can be made with minimal technical skill and household equipment. “You can start in the evening, and in the morning it will be ready,” Mr. Keinan said.
The EU’s regulatory system, among the strictest in the world, depends on businesses reporting suspicious transactions of hydrogen peroxide, acetone and a number of other chemicals to the police. Businesses are urged to look for a number of red flags, such as if the customer’s use for the chemical is unclear or the purchase is made using large amounts of cash. The rules also ban consumers from owning seven potentially dangerous chemical solutions, including hydrogen peroxide solution, in concentrations higher than 12%.
But the fact that the chemicals have so many commercial applications—from disinfecting pools to removing nail polish—makes identifying suspicious transactions challenging. Authorities and experts say the huge quantity of legitimate trade of such widely-used chemicals means finding suspicious transactions is effectively like picking a needle out of a haystack.
“It’s a very difficult area because there are thousands of legitimate uses for these substances,” said Peter Newport, chief executive of the Chemical Business Association, which represents U.K. chemical distributors.
Some officials have also expressed worries that not all of the 28 EU governments have swiftly implemented the regulations, failing, for example, to create a contact point in law enforcement that would investigate suspicious transactions.
It remains unclear how the Islamic State operatives obtained the chemicals. An official with the Belgian Association of Chemical Distributors wasn’t aware of any suspicious transactions reported to the police in recent months. A Belgian police spokesman declined to comment.
The monitoring program used by customs agencies, called Global Shield, was sought by U.S. authorities seeking to stop the flow of bomb-making chemicals into Afghanistan, where insurgents used them to build bombs that were killing U.S. troops. These chemicals were mainly ammonium-nitrate fertilizer or potassium chlorate shipped from China for use in Pakistan’s match industry and then smuggled across the border.
Now shipments of these chemicals crisscrossing the globe are monitored through a system maintained at the World Customs Organization in Brussels. Customs agencies are supposed to warn each other about suspicious shipments, using some of the same criteria identified in the European regulations.
TATP poses a particularly serious threat to aviation, says Mr. Keinan. The chemical isn’t detectable, he says, by the machines installed at many airports, which are able to uncover more common, nitrogen-based explosives such as TNT. Dogs can also be trained to detect the material.
しかし、彼のスピードスケート背景、チンクアンタは、特にカナダと米国では、フィギュアスケート界からの批判にかなりの量の対象となっている。 2002冬季オリンピックはスキャンダルフィギュアスケートの間に、彼は彼の曖昧と、彼は「図がうまくスケート知っている」しなかったことを彼の入学を批判された。 [ 1 ]スポーツについての知識の彼公言不足にもかかわらず、彼は提案した[ 2 ]主な特徴、これまで個々の裁判官が競争をマークしたのかを知ることから誰かを妨げる秘密であるフィギュアスケートのための新しいスコアリングシステム。ワシントンD.C. 、 2003年世界フィギュアスケート選手権で秘密審査の実施は、彼が紹介されたときはいつでも、 [ 3 ]チンクアンタと個人的に視聴者jeeredされ、そのイベントでファンの抗議をもたらすのに十分な論議をした。 [ 4 ] [ 5 ]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2011 Rostelecom Cup - Ottavio Cinquanta.jpg
Cinquanta grew up in Milan, Italy, where he practiced as an ice hockey player, in athletics and as an ice speed skater. Cinquanta attended university and he was mainly active in business administration. At the time of his election to the ISU Presidency, at the age of 56, he retired from his position as a manager of an international chemical company.
When Cinquanta was first elected to the ISU Presidency, he was initially regarded as a progressive who introduced prize money at ISU Events after negotiating several commercial contracts, including an important television contract with ABC Sports. This allowed the ISU to retain athletes who might have otherwise left Olympic-eligible skating to participate in unsanctioned made-for-television professional skating competitions, which were then offering large appearance fees to top skaters. The television money also allowed the ISU to sustain a variety of development programs in both Figure Skating and Speed Skating branches, including, for example, the ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating.
However, because of his speed skating background, Cinquanta has been the subject of a considerable amount of criticism from the figure skating community, particularly in Canada and the United States. During the 2002 Olympic Winter Games figure skating scandal, he was criticized for his evasiveness and his admission that he didn't "know figure skating so well". In spite of his professed lack of knowledge about the sport, he proposed a new scoring system for figure skating whose major feature is secrecy which would prevent anyone from ever knowing how an individual judge had marked the competition. The implementation of secret judging at the 2003 World Figure Skating Championships in Washington, D.C., was controversial enough to result in a fan protest at that event, with Cinquanta personally being jeered by the audience whenever he was introduced.
Cinquanta had previously been loudly booed by fans at the 1996 World Figure Skating Championships in Edmonton, Alberta, after he invoked a technicality to prevent local skating favorite Kurt Browning from skating in the opening ceremony of that event and again at the 1998 Championships in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Cinquanta has been consecutively reelected to the ISU Presidency at all the ISU elective Congresses and it is estimated[by whom?] that since his first election in 1994, approximately thirty innovations have been introduced in the International Skating Union regarding the two branches administered of Figure Skating and Speed Skating.