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2011-11-20

Where Linux crushes Windows like a bug: Supercomputers

The faster a computer goes, the more likely is to have Linux at its heart. The most recent Top500 list of supercomputers shows that, if anything, Linux is becoming even more popular at computing’s high end.

In the latest Top500 Supercomputer list, youll find when you dig into the supercomputer statistics that Linux runs 457 of the world’s fastest computers. That’s 91.4%. Linux is followed by Unix, with 30 or 6%; mixed operating systems with 11 supercomputers, 2.2%. In the back of the line, youll find OpenSolaris and BSD with 1 computer and–oh me, oh my–Windows also with just 1 supercomputer to its credit. That’s a drop from 4 in the last supercomputer round up in June.

Digging deeper, we find that various customized Linux distributions account for 414 of the supercomputers. AIX, IBM’s house brand of Unix, takes a distant second place in individual operating system distributions. It’s followed by various versions of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) and a variety of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) variants including the RHEL clone CentOS. Compute Node Linux is the last significant solo Linux distribution on the list.

Other operating systems that just make the list includes Oracle’s all but dead OpenSolaris with one entry. The sole Windows entry, Windows HPC 2008, placed 58th.

So, while Linux has only a minute share of the desktop, a big chunk of the server market, is the platform for most Web servers, when it comes to one arena: the fastest of the fast, supercomputers, Linux absolutely rules.

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2009-11-14

Top500

Rank Site Computer/Year Vendor Cores Rmax Rpeak Power1 DOE/NNSA/LANL

United States Roadrunner - BladeCenter QS22/LS21 Cluster, PowerXCell 8i 3.2 Ghz / Opteron DC 1.8 GHz, Voltaire Infiniband / 2008

IBM 129600 1105.00 1456.70 2483.47

2 Oak Ridge National Laboratory

United States Jaguar - Cray XT5 QC 2.3 GHz / 2008

Cray Inc. 150152 1059.00 1381.40 6950.60

3 Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ)

Germany JUGENE - Blue Gene/P Solution / 2009

IBM 294912 825.50 1002.70 2268.00

4 NASA/Ames Research Center/NAS

United States Pleiades - SGI Altix ICE 8200EX, Xeon QC 3.0/2.66 GHz / 2008

SGI 51200 487.01 608.83 2090.00

5 DOE/NNSA/LLNL

United States BlueGene/L - eServer Blue Gene Solution / 2007

IBM 212992 478.20 596.38 2329.60

6 National Institute for Computational Sciences/University of Tennessee

United States Kraken XT5 - Cray XT5 QC 2.3 GHz / 2008

Cray Inc. 66000 463.30 607.20

7 Argonne National Laboratory

United States Blue Gene/P Solution / 2007

IBM 163840 458.61 557.06 1260.00

8 Texas Advanced Computing Center/Univ. of Texas

United States Ranger - SunBlade x6420, Opteron QC 2.3 Ghz, Infiniband / 2008

Sun Microsystems 62976 433.20 579.38 2000.00

9 DOE/NNSA/LLNL

United States Dawn - Blue Gene/P Solution / 2009

IBM 147456 415.70 501.35 1134.00

10 Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ)

Germany JUROPA - Sun Constellation, NovaScale R422-E2, Intel Xeon X5570, 2.93 GHz, Sun M9/Mellanox QDR Infiniband/Partec Parastation / 2009

Bull SA 26304 274.80 308.28 1549.00

11 NERSC/LBNL

United States Franklin - Cray XT4 QuadCore 2.3 GHz / 2008

Cray Inc. 38642 266.30 355.51 1150.00

12 Oak Ridge National Laboratory

United States Jaguar - Cray XT4 QuadCore 2.1 GHz / 2008

Cray Inc. 30976 205.00 260.20 1580.71

13 NNSA/Sandia National Laboratories

United States Red Storm - Sandia/ Cray Red Storm, XT3/4, 2.4/2.2 GHz dual/quad core / 2008

Cray Inc. 38208 204.20 284.00 2506.00

14 King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

Saudia Arabia Shaheen - Blue Gene/P Solution / 2009

IBM 65536 185.17 222.82 504.00

15 Shanghai Supercomputer Center

China Magic Cube - Dawning 5000A, QC Opteron 1.9 Ghz, Infiniband, Windows HPC 2008 / 2008

Dawning 30720 180.60 233.47

16 SciNet/University of Toronto

Canada GPC - iDataPlex, Xeon E55xx QC 2.53 GHz, GigE / 2009

IBM 30240 168.60 306.03 869.40

17 New Mexico Computing Applications Center (NMCAC)

United States Encanto - SGI Altix ICE 8200, Xeon quad core 3.0 GHz / 2007

SGI 14336 133.20 172.03 861.63

18 Computational Research Laboratories, TATA SONS

India EKA - Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c, Xeon 53xx 3GHz, Infiniband / 2008

Hewlett-Packard 14384 132.80 172.61 786.00

19 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

United States Juno - Appro XtremeServer 1143H, Opteron QC 2.2Ghz, Infiniband / 2008

Appro International 18224 131.60 162.20

20 Grand Equipement National de Calcul Intensif - Centre Informatique National de l'Enseignement Supérieur (GENCI-CINES)

France Jade - SGI Altix ICE 8200EX, Xeon quad core 3.0 GHz / 2008

SGI 12288 128.40 146.74 608.18

21 National Institute for Computational Sciences/University of Tennessee

United States Athena - Cray XT4 QuadCore 2.3 GHz / 2008

Cray Inc. 17956 125.13 165.20 888.82

22 Japan Agency for Marine -Earth Science and Technology

Japan Earth Simulator - Earth Simulator / 2009

NEC 1280 122.40 131.07

23 Swiss Scientific Computing Center (CSCS)

Switzerland Monte Rosa - Cray XT5 QC 2.4 GHz / 2009

Cray Inc. 14740 117.60 141.50

24 IDRIS

France Blue Gene/P Solution / 2008

IBM 40960 116.01 139.26 315.00

25 ECMWF

United Kingdom Power 575, p6 4.7 GHz, Infiniband / 2009

IBM 8320 115.90 156.42 1329.70

26 ECMWF

United Kingdom Power 575, p6 4.7 GHz, Infiniband / 2008

IBM 8320 115.90 156.42 1329.70

27 DKRZ - Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum

Germany Power 575, p6 4.7 GHz, Infiniband / 2008

IBM 8064 115.90 151.60 1288.69

28 JAXA

Japan Fujitsu FX1, Quadcore SPARC64 VII 2.52 GHz, Infiniband DDR / 2009

Fujitsu 12032 110.60 121.28

29 Total Exploration Production

France SGI Altix ICE 8200EX, Xeon quad core 3.0 GHz / 2008

SGI 10240 106.10 122.88 442.00

30 Government Agency

Sweden Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c, Xeon 53xx 2.66GHz, Infiniband / 2007

Hewlett-Packard 13728 102.80 146.43

31 Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Science

China DeepComp 7000, HS21/x3950 Cluster, Xeon QC HT 3 GHz/2.93 GHz, Infiniband / 2008

Lenovo 12216 102.80 145.97

32 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

United States Hera - Appro Xtreme-X3 Server - Quad Opteron Quad Core 2.3 GHz, Infiniband / 2009

Appro International 13552 102.20 127.20

33 Max-Planck-Gesellschaft MPI/IPP

Germany VIP - Power 575, p6 4.7 GHz, Infiniband / 2008

IBM 6720 98.24 126.34 1073.99

34 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

United States Chinook - Cluster Platform 4000 DL185G5, Opteron QC 2.2 GHz, Infiniband DDR / 2008

Hewlett-Packard 18176 97.07 159.95

35 IT Service Provider

Germany Cluster Platform 3000 BL2x220, E54xx 3.0 Ghz, Infiniband / 2009

Hewlett-Packard 10240 94.74 122.88

36 EDF R&D

France Frontier2 BG/L - Blue Gene/P Solution / 2008

IBM 32768 92.96 111.41 252.00

37 IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center

United States BGW - eServer Blue Gene Solution / 2005

IBM 40960 91.29 114.69 448.00

38 Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)/CCRT

France CEA-CCRT-Titane - BULL Novascale R422-E2 / 2009

Bull SA 8576 91.19 100.51

39 Naval Oceanographic Office - NAVO MSRC

United States Cray XT5 QC 2.3 GHz / 2008

Cray Inc. 12733 90.84 117.13 588.90

40 Institute of Physical and Chemical Res. (RIKEN)

Japan PRIMERGY RX200S5 Cluster, Xeon X5570 2.93GHz, Infiniband DDR / 2009

Fujitsu 8256 87.89 96.76

41 GSIC Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology

Japan TSUBAME Grid Cluster with CompView TSUBASA - Sun Fire x4600/x6250, Opteron 2.4/2.6 GHz, Xeon E5440 2.833 GHz, ClearSpeed CSX600, nVidia GT200; Voltaire Infiniband / 2009

NEC/Sun 31024 87.01 163.19 1103.00

42 Information Technology Center, The University of Tokyo

Japan T2K Open Supercomputer (Todai Combined Cluster) - Hitachi Cluster Opteron QC 2.3 GHz, Myrinet 10G / 2008

Hitachi 12288 82.98 113.05 638.60

43 HLRN at Universitaet Hannover / RRZN

Germany SGI Altix ICE 8200EX, Xeon X5570 quad core 2.93 GHz / 2009

SGI 7680 82.57 90.01

44 HLRN at ZIB/Konrad Zuse-Zentrum fuer Informationstechnik

Germany SGI Altix ICE 8200EX, Xeon X5570 quad core 2.93 GHz / 2009

SGI 7680 82.57 90.01

45 Stony Brook/BNL, New York Center for Computational Sciences

United States New York Blue - eServer Blue Gene Solution / 2007

IBM 36864 82.16 103.22 403.20

46 CINECA

Italy Power 575, p6 4.7 GHz, Infiniband / 2009

IBM 5376 78.68 101.07 859.19

47 Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba

Japan T2K Open Supercomputer - Appro Xtreme-X3 Server - Quad Opteron Quad Core 2.3 GHz, Infiniband / 2009

Appro International 10368 77.28 95.39 671.80

48 US Army Research Laboratory (ARL)

United States Cray XT5 QC 2.3 GHz / 2008

Cray Inc. 10400 76.80 95.68 481.00

49 CSC (Center for Scientific Computing)

Finland Cray XT5/XT4 QC 2.3 GHz / 2009

Cray Inc. 10864 76.51 102.00 520.80

50 DOE/NNSA/LLNL

United States ASC Purple - eServer pSeries p5 575 1.9 GHz / 2006

IBM 12208 75.76 92.78 1992.96

51 National Centers for Environment Prediction

United States Power 575, p6 4.7 GHz, Infiniband / 2008

IBM 4992 73.06 93.85 797.82

52 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Computational Center for Nanotechnology Innovations

United States eServer Blue Gene Solution / 2007

IBM 32768 73.03 91.75 358.40

53 Naval Oceanographic Office - NAVO MSRC

United States Power 575, p6 4.7 GHz, Infiniband / 2008

IBM 4896 71.66 92.04 782.48

54 Joint Supercomputer Center

Russia MVS-100K - Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c/BL2x220, Xeon 54xx 3 Ghz, Infiniband / 2008

Hewlett-Packard 7920 71.28 95.04 327.00

55 US Army Research Laboratory (ARL)

United States SGI Altix ICE 8200 Enhanced LX, Xeon X5560 quad core 2.8 GHz / 2009

SGI 6656 70.00 74.55

56 NCSA

United States Abe - PowerEdge 1955, 2.33 GHz, Infiniband, Windows Server 2008/Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 / 2007

Dell 9600 68.48 89.59

57 Cray Inc.

United States Shark - Cray XT5 QC 2.4 GHz / 2009

Cray Inc. 8576 67.76 82.33

58 NASA/Ames Research Center/NAS

United States Columbia - SGI Altix 1.5/1.6/1.66 GHz, Voltaire Infiniband / 2008

SGI 13824 66.57 82.94

59 University of Minnesota/Supercomputing Institute

United States Cluster Platform 3000 BL280c G6, Xeon X55xx 2.8Ghz, Infiniband / 2009

Hewlett-Packard 8048 64.00 90.14

60 Barcelona Supercomputing Center

Spain MareNostrum - BladeCenter JS21 Cluster, PPC 970, 2.3 GHz, Myrinet / 2006

IBM 10240 63.83 94.21

61 DOE/NNSA/LANL

United States Cerrillos - BladeCenter QS22/LS21 Cluster, PowerXCell 8i 3.2 Ghz / Opteron DC 1.8 GHz, Infiniband / 2008

IBM 7200 63.25 80.93 138.00

62 IBM Poughkeepsie Benchmarking Center

United States BladeCenter QS22/LS21 Cluster, PowerXCell 8i 3.2 Ghz / Opteron DC 1.8 GHz, Infiniband / 2008

IBM 7200 63.25 80.93 138.00

63 National Centers for Environment Prediction

United States Power 575, p6 4.7 GHz, Infiniband / 2009

IBM 4224 61.82 79.41 675.08

64 NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research)

United States bluefire - Power 575, p6 4.7 GHz, Infiniband / 2008

IBM 4064 59.68 76.40 649.51

65 National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS)

Japan Plasma Simulator - Hitachi SR16000 Model L2, Power6 4.7Ghz, Infiniband / 2009

Hitachi 4096 56.65 77.00 645.00

66 Leibniz Rechenzentrum

Germany HLRB-II - Altix 4700 1.6 GHz / 2007

SGI 9728 56.52 62.26 990.24

67 ERDC MSRC

United States Jade - Cray XT4 QuadCore 2.1 GHz / 2008

Cray Inc. 8464 56.25 71.10 418.97

68 University of Edinburgh

United Kingdom HECToR - Cray XT4, 2.8 GHz / 2007

Cray Inc. 11328 54.65 63.44

69 University of Tokyo/Human Genome Center, IMS

Japan SHIROKANE - SunBlade x6250, Xeon E5450 3GHz, Infiniband / 2009

Sun Microsystems 5760 54.21 69.12

70 NNSA/Sandia National Laboratories

United States Thunderbird - PowerEdge 1850, 3.6 GHz, Infiniband / 2006

Dell 9024 53.00 64.97

71 Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)

France Tera-10 - NovaScale 5160, Itanium2 1.6 GHz, Quadrics / 2006

Bull SA 9968 52.84 63.80

72 IDRIS

France Power 575, p6 4.7 GHz, Infiniband / 2008

IBM 3584 52.81 67.38 572.79

73 United Kingdom Meteorological Office

United Kingdom UKMO B - Power 575, p6 4.7 GHz, Infiniband / 2009

IBM 3520 51.86 66.18 562.60

74 United Kingdom Meteorological Office

United Kingdom UKMO A - Power 575, p6 4.7 GHz, Infiniband / 2009

IBM 3520 51.86 66.18 562.60

75 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base/DoD ASC

United States Altix 4700 1.6 GHz / 2007

SGI 9216 51.44 58.98

76 University of Southern California

United States HPC - PowerEdge 1950/SunFire X2200 Cluster Intel 53xx 2.33Ghz, Opteron 2.3 Ghz, Myrinet 10G / 2009

Dell/Sun 7104 51.41 65.64

77 HWW/Universitaet Stuttgart

Germany Baku - NEC HPC 140Rb-1 Cluster, Xeon X5560 2.8Ghz, Infiniband / 2009

NEC 5376 50.79 60.21 186.00

78 Kyoto University

Japan T2K Open Supercomputer/Kyodai - Fujitsu Cluster HX600, Opteron Quad Core, 2.3 GHz, Infiniband / 2008

Fujitsu 6656 50.51 61.24

79 SARA (Stichting Academisch Rekencentrum)

Netherlands Power 575, p6 4.7 GHz, Infiniband / 2008

IBM 3328 48.93 62.57 531.88

80 SciNet/University of Toronto

Canada Power 575, p6 4.7 GHz, Infiniband / 2008

IBM 3328 48.93 62.57 531.88

81 IT Service Provider (B)

United States Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c, Xeon 54xx 3.0GHz, GigEthernet / 2009

Hewlett-Packard 7600 48.14 91.20

82 Moscow State University - Research Computing Center

Russia SKIF MSU - T-Platforms T60, Intel Quadcore 3Mhz, Infiniband DDR / 2008

SKIF/T-Platforms 5000 47.17 60.00 265.00

83 National Supercomputer Centre (NSC)

Sweden Neolith - Cluster Platform 3000 DL140 Cluster, Xeon 53xx 2.33GHz Infiniband / 2008

Hewlett-Packard 6440 47.03 60.02

84 IBM - Rochester

United States Blue Gene/P Solution / 2007

IBM 16384 46.83 55.71 126.00

85 IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center

United States Blue Gene/P Solution / 2009

IBM 16384 46.83 55.71 126.00

86 Max-Planck-Gesellschaft MPI/IPP

Germany Genius - Blue Gene/P Solution / 2008

IBM 16384 46.83 55.71 126.00

87 Texas Advanced Computing Center/Univ. of Texas

United States Lonestar - PowerEdge 1955, 2.66 GHz, Infiniband / 2007

Dell 5848 46.73 62.22

88 HPC2N - Umea University

Sweden Akka - BladeCenter HS21 Cluster, Xeon QC HT 2.5 GHz, IB, Windows HPC 2008/CentOS / 2008

IBM 5376 46.04 53.76 173.21

89 Clemson University

United States Palmetto - PowerEdge 1950/SunFire X2200 Cluster Intel 53xx/54xx 2.33Ghz, Opteron 2.3 Ghz, Myrinet 10G / 2008

Dell/Sun 6120 45.61 56.55 285.00

90 Financial Services (H)

United States Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c G1, Xeon L5420 2.5 GHz, GigE / 2009

Hewlett-Packard 8312 43.75 83.12

91 Ohio Supercomputer Center

United States xSeries x3455 Cluster Opteron, DC 2.6 GHz/QC 2.5 GHz, Infiniband / 2009

IBM 8416 43.46 68.38

92 Consulting (C)

United States Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c G1, Xeon E5450 3.0 GHz, GigE / 2009

Hewlett-Packard 6768 43.00 81.22

93 National Institute for Materials Science

Japan SGI Altix ICE 8200EX, Xeon X5560 quad core 2.8 GHz / 2009

SGI 4096 42.69 45.88

94 IT Service Provider (D)

United States Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c, Xeon 54xx 3.0GHz, GigEthernet / 2009

Hewlett-Packard 6672 42.41 80.06

95 Maui High-Performance Computing Center (MHPCC)

United States Jaws - PowerEdge 1955, 3.0 GHz, Infiniband / 2006

Dell 5200 42.39 62.40

96 Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)

France CEA-CCRT-Platine - Novascale 3045, Itanium2 1.6 GHz, Infiniband / 2007

Bull SA 7680 42.13 49.15

97 US Army Research Laboratory (ARL)

United States Michael J. Muuss Cluster (MJM) - Evolocity II (LS Supersystem) Xeon 51xx 3.0 GHz IB / 2007

Linux Networx 4416 40.61 52.99

98 University of Bergen

Norway Cray XT4 QuadCore 2.3 GHz / 2008

Cray Inc. 5550 40.59 51.06 274.73

99 Jeraisy Computer and Communication Services

Saudia Arabia Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c, Xeon 54xx 3 GHz, Infiniband / 2009

Hewlett-Packard 4192 39.70 50.30

100 R-Systems

United States R Smarr - Dell DCS CS23-SH, QC HT 2.8 GHz, Infiniband / 2008

Dell 4608 39.58 51.61

 
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